Background: Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused mainly by the Mycobacterium
tuberculosis accounts for the highest number of deaths worldwide. Despite curing millions, the currently
used drug regimens are bounded by various limitations such as long course of therapy, emergence of
resistance and permanent tissue damage. The treatment of multidrug-resistant and extremely drugresistant
tuberculosis is a challenging task due to its reliance on second-line drugs which are less potent
and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Therefore,
the major challenges in the upcoming years are to overcome the emergence of increased number of
multidrug-resistant as well as extensively drug-resistant strains and the ineptness of the current treatment
regimens against latent tuberculosis. Bedaquiline and Delamanid are the only new anti-TB drugs
that have been currently approved since more than 40 years after discovery of isoniazid. Bedaquiline is
the first diarylquinoline derivative that has showed resilient culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb
Methods: Extensive literature search on the topic was undergone using a focused question.
Results: Fifty-eight research articles from journals of repute are included in the review. The vaccine and
peptide-based conjugates are recent developments against Mycobacterium for selective and specific
targeting to the desired tissues.
Conclusion: In this review, we have focused on the different classes of chemical as well as plant based
compounds as potent antitubercular agents against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. This review
falls light on the importance of research been undergoing in different parts of the world to combat the
ever increasing problem of mycobacterial resistance and the various treatment options available for the
treatment of tuberculosis.