Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Simultaneous Determination of Nucleosides and Amino Acids in Kang Fu Xin Liquid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector

Author(s): Yuwen Wang, Shuping Li, Liuhong Zhang, Shenglan Qi, Huida Guan, Wei Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Li Liu, Liang Cheng*, Changhong Wang*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Analysis

Volume 16 , Issue 7 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Kang Fu Xin liquid (KFX) is an official preparation made from the ethanol extract product from P. Americana. The present quality control method cannot control the quality of the preparation well. The aim of the present study is to establish a convenient HPLC method for multicomponents determination combined with fingerprint analysis for quality control of KFX.

Methods: An HPLC-DAD method with gradient elution and detective wavelength switching program was developed to establish HPLC fingerprints of KFX, and 38 batches of KFX were compared and evaluated by similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA). Meanwhile, six nucleosides and three amino acids, including uracil, hypoxanthine, uric acid, adenosine, xanthine, inosine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in KFX were determined based on the HPLC fingerprints.

Result: An HPLC method assisted with gradient elution and wavelength switching program was established and validated for multicomponents determination combined with fingerprint analysis of KFX. The results demonstrated that the similarity values of the KFX samples were more than 0.845. PCA indicated that peaks 4 (hypoxanthine), 7 (xanthine), 9 (tyrosine), 11, 13 and 17 might be the characteristic contributed components. The nine constituents in KFX, uracil, hypoxanthine, uric acid, adenosine, xanthine, inosine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, showed good regression (R2 > 0.9997) within test ranges and the recoveries of the method for all analytes were in the range from 96.74 to 104.24%. The limits of detections and quantifications for nine constituents in DAD were less than 0.22 and 0.43 μg•mL-1, respectively.

Conclusion: The qualitative analysis of chemical fingerprints and the quantitative analysis of multiple indicators provide a powerful and rational way to control the KFX quality for pharmaceutical companies.

Keywords: Kang Fu xin liquid, periplaneta americana, fingerprints, quality control, HPLC-DAD, nucleosides, amino acids.

[1]
Luo, T.S.; Gao, M.T.; Ma, F.F.; Liu, G.M.; Zhang, C.G. Research advances in pharmacological action and clinical application of Periplaneta americana. Agric. Sci. Technol., 2019, 13, 888-892.
[2]
Xiao, X.Q.; Wang, S.P.; Xu, S.R.; Liu, X.Q.; Luo, C.; Wu, S.Y.; Zeng, S.H. Study on effects of the extracts of Periplaneta americana on anti-inflammation and analgesia action. J Path Biolo, 2007, 2(2), 140-143.
[3]
Yun, J.; Hwang, J.S.; Lee, D.G. The antifungal activity of the peptide, periplanetasin-2, derived from American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Biochem. J., 2017, 474(17), 3027-3043.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20170461] [PMID: 28733329]
[4]
Zhao, Y.; Yang, A.; Tu, P.; Hu, Z. Anti-tumor effects of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Chin. Med., 2017, 12(1), 26-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-017-0149-6] [PMID: 28919922]
[5]
Zhang, H.W.; Wei, L.Y.; Zhao, G.; Yang, Y.J.; Liu, S.Z.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Jing, Z.; Hu, Y.L. Periplaneta americana extract used in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. World J. Emerg. Med., 2016, 7(1), 50-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2016.01.009] [PMID: 27006739]
[6]
Huang, Y.F.; Li, L.J.; Gao, S.Q.; Chu, Y.; Niu, J.; Geng, F.N.; Shen, Y.M.; Peng, L.H. Evidence based anti-osteoporosis effects of Periplaneta americana L on osteoblasts, osteoclasts, vascular endothelial cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2017, 17(1), 413-425.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1917-7] [PMID: 28821253]
[7]
Song, Q.; Gou, Q.H.; Xie, Y.X.; Zhang, Z.; Fu, C.M. Periplaneta americana extracts promote skin wound healing via nuclear factor kappa B canonical pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2017, 2017, 5821706.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/5821706]
[8]
He, X.; Pu, X.F.; Li, J.; Peng, F. Effect of extractive from Periplaneta americana on immune on and inhibitory tumor action in S180-bearing mice. Chin. J. Exp. Tradit. Med. Form, 2012, 18(15), 179-182.
[9]
Yuan, F.; Liu, J.; Qiao, T.; Li, T.; Shen, Q.; Peng, F. The effects and mechanisms of Periplaneta americana extract reversal of multidrug resistance in BEL-7402/5-FU Cells. Molecules, 2016, 21(7), 852-867.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070852] [PMID: 27367657]
[10]
Shi, W.M. The medical research advanced on Perinlaneta americana. Chin. J. Ethnomed. Ethnopharm., 2012, 21(3), 50-51.
[11]
Zhang, H.C.; Geng, F.N.; Shen, Y.M.; Liu, H.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, C.G. Research progress of Kangfuxin Ye in pharmacological action and clinical application. Chin. J. Ethnomed. Ethnopharm., 2017, 26, 57-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.034]
[12]
Chen, P.P.; Shen, Y.M.; Shi, H.X.; Ma, X.Y.; Lin, B.B.; Xiao, T.; Wu, F.Z.; Zhu, J.J.; Li, Z.M.; Xiao, J.; Li, X.K.; Zhang, H.Y.; Geng, F.N. Gastroprotective effects of Kang Fu Xin against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer via attenuating oxidative stress and ER stress in mice. Chem. Biol. Interact., 2016, 260, 75-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2016.10.021]
[13]
Shen, Y.; Sun, J.; Niu, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Z.; Cong, W.; Geng, F. Mechanistic evaluation of gastroprotective effects of Kangfuxin on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Chem. Biol. Interact., 2017, 273, 115-124.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2017.06.007] [PMID: 28606470]
[14]
Shu, C.X.; Cheng, T.M. Study of the heal promoting effect of Kang Fu Xin on full thickness dermal wound and dermal wound complicated with systemic gamma ray radiation in rats. Acta. Acad. Med. Mil. Tert., 1999, 3, 164-169.
[15]
Xu, H. Application of Kang Fu Xin liquid ultrasonic atomization in residual burns. World Latest Med. Infor., 2016, 16(70), 142.
[16]
Su, Y.M.; He, L.L.; Guo, P.Y. Application of Kang Fu Xin Liquid oxygen atomization combined with insulin wet method in treatment of bedsore. Chin. J. New Clin. Med., 2012, 5(1), 61-62.
[17]
Man, H.X.; Huang, L.; Na, K.G.; Tan, Q.Y.; Yang, Y.S.; Xiao, P.Y. Research progress of chemical component and biological activity in medicinal Periplaneta americana. Anti. Infect. Pham., 2014, 11(5), 403-407.
[18]
China National Food and Drug Administration. National drug standards. 2001., ws3-b-3674-2000(z).,
[19]
Wang, L.C.; Kong, F.G.; Wei, Z.; Zhang, W.T.; Liang, L. development of high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint for kang fu xin liquid; int. confer. moder. chin. med , 2010; pp. 364-370.
[20]
Zhang, L.; Li, H. Determination of uracil, hypoxanthine and inosine in Kang Fu Xin liquids by HPLC. Chin Pharmacist, 2012, 15(9), 1265-1267.
[21]
Wu, H.M.; Xu, F.; Liu, L.M.; Wang, X.P.; Yang, M. Investigation of UPLC fingerprint for Kang Fu Xin liquid. Chin. J. Exp. Tradit. Med. Form., 2013, 19(8), 59-62.
[22]
Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Zhang, J.; Qi, Y.; Jia, X.; Zhang, B.; Xiao, P. Simultaneous quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis of Receptaculum nelumbinis based on HPLC-DAD-MS combined with chemometrics. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2016, 54(4), 618-624.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmv229] [PMID: 26921895]
[23]
Shu, Z.; Li, X.; Rahman, K.; Qin, L.; Zheng, C. Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis for the quality evaluation of Vitex negundo seeds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hierarchical clustering analysis. J. Sep. Sci., 2016, 39(2), 279-286.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201500796] [PMID: 26530256]
[24]
Shi, Y.H.; Xie, Z.Y.; Wang, R.; Huang, S.J.; Li, Y.M.; Wang, Z.T. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for the quality evaluation of Isatis indigotica based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with chemometric methods. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2012, 13(7), 9035-9050.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13079035] [PMID: 22942750]
[25]
Li, J.; He, X.; Li, M.; Zhao, W.; Liu, L.; Kong, X. Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis for quality control of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel by HPLC. Food Chem., 2015, 176(402), 7-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.040] [PMID: 25624199]
[26]
He, Y.; Li, Q.; Bi, K. Simultaneous determination of six active components by a single standard to determine multicomponents combined with fingerprint analysis for the quality control of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. J. Sep. Sci., 2015, 38(7), 1090-1099.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201401280] [PMID: 25619592]
[27]
Wang, L.; Wu, Y.; Bei, Q.; Shi, K.; Wu, Z. Fingerprint profiles of flavonoid compounds from different Psidium guajava leaves and their antioxidant activities. J. Sep. Sci., 2017, 40(19), 3817-3829.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201700477] [PMID: 28857481]
[28]
Kong, W.J.; Zhao, Y.L.; Xiao, X.H.; Jin, C.; Li, Z.L. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control of rhizoma Coptidischinensis based on UPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics methods. Phytomedicine, 2009, 16(10), 950-959.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.016] [PMID: 19553096]
[29]
Cheng, X.M.; Zhao, T.; Yang, T.; Wang, C.H.; Bligh, S.W.; Wang, Z.T. HPLC fingerprints combined with principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis for the classification and differentiation of Peganum sp. indigenous to China. Phytochem. Anal., 2010, 21(3), 279-289.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.1198] [PMID: 20020435]
[30]
Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Ling, J.; Liu, L.; Chen, X.; Bi, K. Simultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in Oolong tea Camellia sinensis: quality control by chemical composition and HPLC fingerprints. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012, 60(1), 256-260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf204312w] [PMID: 22098505]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2020
Published on: 17 August, 2020
Page: [831 - 843]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1573412915666190328215231
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 23
HTML: 2