Background: Improvement of conventional heat transfer fluids for achieving higher
energy efficiencies in thermal equipment is a key parameter to conserve energy in industries. The
heat transfer fluids such as water, oil and ethylene glycol greatly suffer low heat transfer performance
in industrial processes. There is a need to develop new types of heat transfer fluids that are
more effective in terms of heat transfer performance. Nanofluids enhance thermal conductivity
and improve the thermal performance of heat transfer systems.
Methods: New titania nanofluid samples consisting of 0.0625 to 1% TiO2 nanoparticles were
prepared and characterized. The method of preparation was based on prior precipitation of TiO2
from an ammoniacal solution of pH 9 and calcination at 900°C. Solubilization, homogenization
and stabilization of the of the nanoparticles were performed by sonication in the presence of sodium
dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic surfactant and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)
Results: This treatment was also utilized to increase the stability and improve the thermal properties
of the fluid.
Conclusion: Several characterization techniques including measurements of hydrodynamic size
distribution, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), viscosity, density, specific
heat, thermal conductivity, and sedimentation photo capturing were used to measure and confirm
the stability and sedimentation rate of the prepared nanofluids.