A “Crazy Paving” Pattern on CT Scan in a Patient Treated with Pembrolizumab

Author(s): Maurizio Marvisi*, Sara Ramponi, Laura Balzarini, Chiara Mancini

Journal Name: Current Drug Safety

Volume 14 , Issue 3 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, have shown great promise in clinical practice and have been incorporated into standard management of NSCLC. Pneumonitis is a serious autoimmune toxicity associated with the use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality.

Methods: We described the case of a 73-year-old woman with no history of smoking developing exertional dyspnea four months after taking Pembrolizumab.

Results: High resolution contrast CT scan (HRCT) presented a unilateral “crazy paving” pattern, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) an important lymphocytosis (20% of total cell count). The patient reached clinical stability after the administration of systemic steroids (2mg\Kg\die) and was discharged with long term oxygen therapy.

Discussion: Pulmonary toxicity is frequent when using PD-1 inhibitors, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, often leading to the discontinuation of therapy. Clinical presentation is usually protean and HRCT pattern is nonspecific. This is the first case presenting a “crazy paving” pattern associated with BAL lymphocytosis.

Conclusion: Oncologists, pulmonologists, radiologists and general practitioners have to consider PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitor pneumonitis as a potentially disabling and fatal event.

Keywords: Pembrolizimab, PD-1 inhibitors, pulmonary toxicity, pneumonitis, NSCLC, ICIs, HRCT.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Published on: 17 September, 2019
Page: [242 - 245]
Pages: 4
DOI: 10.2174/1574886314666190312115648

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