Background: Chitosan, chitosan nanoparticle, ethanolic extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum
root and Cyperus rotundus rhizome were evaluated against plasmid mediated multidrug resistance
of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. isolated from unstimulated
saliva of chronic periodontitis. The main aim of the current study centres the reduction of antibiotic
consumption and the development of natural compounds to combat multidrug resistance.
Methods: Identification of bacteria, antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid stability and plasmid curing
was carried out for the characterization of resistance plasmids.
Results: E. faecalis showed 89% of sensitivity to chitosan nanoparticle, chitosan 81%, C. Rotundus
69% and A. pyrethrum 62% for S. aureus, with the MIC >100 µg/ml. In comparison with the
antimicrobials tested, maximum resistance to tetracycline (89%) for E. faecalis, is followed by
ampicillin (87%) and tetracycline (81%) for S. aureus. Meanwhile, chloramphenicol and tetracycline
(80%) for Bacillus sp. The plasmid stability for E. faecalis (20%), S. aureus (<4%) and Bacillus
sp. (16%). The order of stability corresponding to the broth media is LB ˃ BHI ˃ nutrient for
E. faecalis, S. aureus but similar in LB and nutrient broth for bacillus sp. The maximum plasmid
curing efficiency of chitosan for S. aureus (76%), Chitosan nanoparticle for E. faecalis (88%), A.
pyrethrum for S. aureus (73%), C. rotundus for E. faecalis (87%). The order of plasmid curing efficiency
is chitosan nanoparticle>C. rotundus>chitosan>A. pyrethrum.
Conclusion: Chitosan, Chitosan nanoparticle, C. rotundus, and A. pyrethrum offered a greater potential
in eliminating plasmid mediated resistance acquired by periodontal pathogens, thus addressing
this crisis in dentistry.