Chitosan/Fluoride Nanoparticles for Preventing Dental Caries

Author(s): Niousha Ebrahimi, Ali Asghar Soleimani*, Jamal Rashidiani, Beheshteh Malekafzali, Fatemeh Abedini, Hossein Hosseinkhani

Journal Name: Current Dentistry

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Dental caries is still a major public health problem. The use of fluoride is one of the most effective ways to prevent tooth decay.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of fluoride entrapped in chitosan nanoparticles in vivo.

Methods: Sodium fluoride was loaded in chitosan via ionic gelation of tripolyphosphate nanoparticles. Characterization of nanoparticles was investigated by using the zeta potential, size of particles, loading capacities, encapsulation efficiency, and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy. Chitosan/ fluoride nanoparticles were fabricated by a method of fluoride/chitosan cross-linking with tripolyphosphate.

Results: The size of nanoparticles was 219 nm. According to the zeta potential results, by adding sodium fluoride to chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles reducing the number of positive charges of chitosan, the result was diminished zeta potential from +30.8 mV to +14.9 mV. The optimum drug loading and percentage of entrapment efficiency were 70% and 30% respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed linked among tripolyphosphate, chitosan and fluoride nanoparticles. In vitro characterization of nanoparticles demonstrated higher fluoride uptake ability and smooth releasing profile.

Conclusion: It is suggested that fluoride/chitosan nanoparticles synthesized in our study may be a promising means of delivering fluoride for the early prevention of tooth decay.

Keywords: Chitosan, dental caries, nanoparticles, polymer, sodium fluoride, tripolyphosphate.

[1]
Silk H. Diseases of the mouth. Prim Care 2014; 41(1): 75-90.
[2]
Carlsson J, Hamilton IR. Metabolic activity of oral bacteria Textbook of clinical cariology. 1994 2nd ed; pp. 77-88.
[3]
Stephan RM. Intra-oral hydrogen-ion concentrations associated with dental caries activity. J Dent Res 1944; 23: 257-66.
[4]
Buzalaf MA, Pessan JP, Honorio HM, Ten Cate JM. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control. Monogr Oral Sci 2011; 22: 97-114.
[5]
Fincham AG, Moradian-Oldak J, Simmer JP. The structural biology of the developing dental enamel matrix. J Struct Biol 1999; 126(3): 270-99.
[6]
Dean HT. Classification of mottled enamel diagnosis. J Am Dent Assoc 1934; 21: 1421-6.
[7]
Dean HT, Arnold FA, Elvove E. Domestic water and dental caries. V. Additional studies of the relation of fluoride domestic waters to dental caries experience in 4,425 white children, aged 12 to 14 years, of 13 cities in 4 states. Public Health Rep 1942; 57: 1155-79.
[8]
Dean HT, Jay PAF. Arnold Jr, Elvove E. Domestic Water and Dental Caries: II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12-14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities, including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children. Public Health Rep 1941; 56(15): 761-92.
[9]
Whitford GM. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci 2011; 22: 66-80.
[10]
Kanduti D, Sterbenk P, Artnik B. Flouride: A Review of Use and Effects on Health. Mater Sociomed 2016; 28(2): 133-7.
[11]
Bibby BG, Wilkins E, Witol E. A preliminary study of the effects of fluoride lozenges and pills on dental caries. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1955; 8(2): 213-6.
[12]
Toole SO, Bartlett DW, Moazzez R. Efficacy of sodium and stannous fluoride mouthrinses when used before single and multiple erosive challenges. Aust Dent J 2016; 61(4): 497-501.
[13]
Oliveira P, Fonseca A, Silva EM, Coutinho T, Tostes MA. Remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP creams with and without fluoride in artificial enamel lesions. Aust Dent J 2016; 61(1): 45-52.
[14]
Ramírez Carrasco A, Sanchez-Armass O, Pierdant M, Butrón Téllez Girón C. Effectiveness of hypnosis in combination with conventional techniques of behavior management in anxiety/pain reduction during dental anesthetic infiltration. Pain Res Manag 2017; 1434015.
[15]
zargar V, Asghari M, Dashti A. A review on chitin and chitosan polymers: Structure, chemistry, solubility, derivatives, and applications. Chem Bio Eng 2015; 2(3): 204-26.
[16]
Zeinali S, Nasirimoghaddam S, Sabbaghi S. Investigation of the synthesis of chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles under different experimental conditions. Int J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016; 12(3): 183-90.
[17]
Soleimani M, Ghorbani M, Salahi S. Antibacterial activity of polypyrrole-chitosan nanocomposite: mechanism of action. Int J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016; 12(3): 191-7.
[18]
Ghaee A, Shariaty-Niassar M, Barzin J, Ismail AF. Chitosan/polyethersulfone composite nanofiltration membrane for industrial wastewater treatment. Int J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2013; 9(4): 213-20.
[19]
Nguyen S, Escudero C, Sediqi N, Smistad G, Hiorth M. Fluoride loaded polymeric nanoparticles for dental delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 2017; 104: 326-34.
[20]
Murata Y, Toniwa S, Miyamoto E, Kawashima S. Preparation of alginate gel beads containing chitosan nicotinic acid salt and the functions. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1999; 48(1): 49-52.
[21]
Seferian PG, Martinez ML. Immune stimulating activity of two new chitosan containing adjuvant formulations. Vaccine 2000; 19(6): 661-8.
[22]
van der Lubben IM, Verhoef JC, Borchard G, Junginger HE. Chitosan for mucosal vaccination. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 52(2): 139-44.
[23]
Illum L, Jabbal-Gill I, Hinchcliffe M, Fisher AN, Davis SS. Chitosan as a novel nasal delivery system for vaccines. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 51(1-3): 81-96.
[24]
Abedini F, Ebrahimi M, Hosseinkhani H. Technology of RNA interference in advanced medicine. MicroRNA 2018; 7(2): 74-84.
[25]
Abedini F, Hosseinkhani H, Ismail M, Chen YR, Omar A, Chong P. Domb In vitro intracellular trafficking of biodegradable nanoparticles dextran-spermine in cancer cell lines. Int J Nanotechnol 2011; 8: 712-23.
[26]
Abedini F, Hosseinkhani H, Ismail M, et al. Cationized dextran nanoparticle-encapsulated CXCR4-siRNA enhanced correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum alkaline phosphatase in a mouse model of colorectal cancer. Int J Nanomedicine 2012; 7: 4159-68.
[27]
Hosseinkhani H, Abedini F, Ou KL, Domb AJ. Polymers in gene therapy technology. Polym Adv Technol 2015; 26: 198-211.
[28]
28. Abedini F, Ebrahimi M, Hemmati Roozbehani A, Domb AJ, Hosseinkhani H. Overview on natural hydrophilic polysaccharide polymers in drug delivery. Polym Adv Technol 2018; 29(10): 2564-73.
[29]
Hosseinkhani H, Abedini F, Ou KL, Domb AJ. Polymers in gene therapy technology. Polym Adv Technol 2015; 26: 198-211.
[30]
Wieckiewicz M, Boening KW, Grychowska N. Clinical application of chitosan in dental specialities. Mini Rev Med Chem 2017; 17: 401-9.
[31]
Tanikonda R, Ravi RK, Divella S. Chitosan: Applications in dentistry. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 2014; 28(2): 74-8.
[32]
ElShiha HY, Abdel Monem Tawfik H, Abou Samrah NK, Marzouk HAEM. Efficacy of chitosan and absorbable gelatine sponge on hemostasis and wound healing following tooth extraction a comparative study. Egypt Dent J 2012; 58244(3): 2443-7.
[33]
Ji QX, Zhong DY, Lu R, Zhang WQ, Deng J, Chen XG. In vitro evaluation of the biomedical properties of chitosan and quaternized chitosan for dental applications. Carbohydr Res 2009; 344(11): 1297-302.
[34]
Senel S, Ikinci G, Kas S, Yousefi-Rad A, Sargon MF, Hincal AA. Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery. Int J Pharm 2000; 193(2): 197-203.
[35]
Singla AK, Chawla M. Chitosan: Some pharmaceutical and biological aspects-an update. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001; 53(8): 1047-67.
[36]
Li F, Liu X, Zhao S, Wu H, Xu HH. Porous chitosan bilayer membrane containing TGF-β1 loaded microspheres for pulp capping and reparative dentin formation in a dog model. Dent Mater 2014; 30(2): 172-81.
[37]
Kim JS, Shin DH. Inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans and mechanical properties of the chitosan containing composite resin. Restor Dent Endod 2013; 38(1): 36-42.
[38]
Malafaya PB, Silva GA, Reis RL. Natural origin polymers as carriers and scaffolds for biomolecules and cell delivery in tissue engineering applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007; 59(4-5): 207-33.
[39]
Nashaat D, Elsabahy M, El-Sherif T, Hamad MA, El-Gindy GA, Ibrahim EH. Development and in vivo evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles for the oral delivery of albumin. Pharm Dev Technol 2018; 18: 1-9.
[40]
Ezoddini Ardakani F, Navab Azam A, Rouhi G. Effects of chitosan on dental bone repair. Health 2011; 3(4): 200-5.
[41]
Shaik J, Garlapati R, Nagesh B, Sujana V, Jayaprakash T, Naidu S. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide using chitosan as carrier against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis: A in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2014; 17(4): 335-9.
[42]
Mohire NC, Yadav AV. Chitosan based polyherbal toothpaste: As novel oral hygiene product. Indian J Dent Res 2010; 21(3): 380-4.
[43]
Bae K, Jun EJ, Lee SM, Paik DI, Kim JB. Effect of water-soluble reduced chitosan on Streptococcus mutans, plaque regrowth and biofilm vitality. Clin Oral Investig 2006; 10(2): 102-7.
[44]
Ganss C, von Hinckeldey J, Tolle A, Schulze K, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Efficacy of the stannous ion and a biopolymer in toothpastes on enamel erosion/abrasion. J Dent 2012; 40(12): 1036-43.
[45]
Schlueter N, Klimek J, Ganss C. Randomised in situ study on the efficacy of a chitin/chitosan toothpaste on erosive-abrasive enamel loss. Caries Res 2013; 47(6): 574-81.
[46]
Samprasit W, Kaomongkolgit R, Sukma M, Rojanarata T, Ngawhirunpat T, Opanasopit P. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats for dental caries prevention. Carbohydr Polym 2015; 6(117): 933-40.
[47]
Matsunaga T, Yanagiguchi K, Hamada S, Ohara N, Ikeda T, Hayashi Y. Chitosan monomer promotes tissue regeneration on dental pulp wounds. J Biomed Mater Res A 2006; 76(4): 711-20.
[48]
Elsaka SE. Antibacterial activity and adhesive properties of a chitosan-containing dental adhesive. Quintessence Int 2012; 43(7): 603-13.
[49]
Liu H, Chen B, Mao Z, Gao C. Chitosan nanoparticles for loading of toothpaste actives and adhesion on tooth analogs. J Appl Polym Sci 2007; 106(6): 4248-56.
[50]
Keegan GM, Smart JD, Ingram MJ, Barnes LM, Burnett GR, Rees GD. Chitosan microparticles for the controlled delivery of fluoride. J Dent 2012; 40(3): 229-40.
[51]
Mohan J. Organic spectroscopy: Principles and applications. 2nd ed: Harrow.UK, 2004 CRC Press. In:
[52]
Pessan JP, Al-Ibrahim NS, Buzalaf MAR, Toumba KJ. Slow-release fluoride devices: A literature review. J Appl Oral Sci 2008; 16: 238-44.
[53]
Featherstone JD. Delivery challenges for fluoride, chlorhexidine and xylitol. BMC Oral Health 2006; 6(1): S8.
[54]
Lynch R, Navada R, Walia R. Low levels of fluoride in plaque and saliva and their effects on the demineralisation and remineralisation of enamel; role of fluoride toothpastes. Int Dent J 2004; 54: 304-9.
[55]
Ganss C, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Erosion/abrasion-preventing potential of NaF and F/Sn/chitosan toothpastes in dentine and impact of the organic matix. Caries Res 2014; 48(2): 163-9.
[56]
Furtado GTFS, Fideles T, Leal Cruz RDCA. Marcus lia fook. chitosan/naf particles prepared via ionotropic gelation: evaluation of particles size and morphology. Mater Res 2018; 21(4): e20180101.
[57]
Wu L, Li F, Morrow BR, et al. A novel antimicrobial and remineralizing toothpaste containing CaCl/chitosan microspheres. m. J Dent 2018; 31(3): 149-54.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 1
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [61 - 67]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2542579X01666190212150457

Article Metrics

PDF: 31
HTML: 12
PRC: 1