SPREAD - A Routing Protocol to Meet End-to-end Adjusted Deadline in Real Time Wireless Sensor Networks

Author(s): Neetika Jain, Sangeeta Mittal*.

Journal Name: International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Real Time Wireless Sensor Networks (RT-WSN) have hard real time packet delivery requirements. Due to resource constraints of sensors, these networks need to trade-off energy and latency.

Objective: In this paper, a routing protocol for RT-WSN named “SPREAD” has been proposed. The underlying idea is to reserve laxity by assuming tighter packet deadline than actual. This reserved laxity is used when no deadline-meeting next hop is available.

Methods: As a result, if due to repeated transmissions, energy of nodes on shortest path is drained out, then time is still left to route the packet dynamically through other path without missing the deadline.

Result: Congestion scenarios have been addressed by dynamically assessing 1-hop delays and avoiding traffic on congested paths.

Conclusion: Through extensive simulations in Network Simulator NS2, it has been observed that SPREAD algorithm not only significantly reduces miss ratio as compared to other similar protocols but also keeps energy consumption under control. It also shows more resilience towards high data rate and tight deadlines than existing popular protocols.

Keywords: End to end deadline, energy, laxity, real-time systems, SPEED, wireless sensor networks.

Nayak A, Stojmenović I. Wireless sensor and actuator networks: algorithms and protocols for scalable coordination and data communication. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons 2010.
Liu J. Real-Time systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2000.
Shah RC, Rabaey JM. Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks. IEEE Wirel Commun Netw Conf Record WCNC (Cat No02TH8609) 2002; 1:: 350-5.
Wang J, Cho J, Lee S, et al. Hop-based energy aware routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. IEICE Trans Commun 2010; 93(2): 305-16.
Heo J, Yi S, Park G, et al. EAR-RT: Energy Aware Routing with real-time guarantee for wireless sensor networks Int Conf Computat Sci-ICCS 2006; 946-53.
He T, Stankovic JA, Abdelzaher TF, et al. A spatiotemporal communication protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE Transact Parallel Distribut Syst. 2005; 16: pp. (10)995-1006.
Felemban E, Lee CG, Ekici E, et al. MMSPEED: multipath Multi-SPEED protocol for QoS guarantee of reliability and. Timeliness in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput 2006; 5(6): 738-54.
Li Y, Chen CS, Song YQ, et al. Enhancing real-time delivery in wireless sensor networks with two-hop information. IEEE Transact Indust Informatics 2009; 5(2): 113-22.
Jung J, Park S, Lee E, Oh S, Kim SH. OMLRP: multi-hop information based real-time routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Wirel Commun Netw Conf Sydney, NSW 2010; 1-6.
Quang P, Kim D. Enhancing real-time delivery of gradient routing for industrial wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transact Indust Informatics 2012; 8(1): 61-8.
Seada K, Zuniga M, Helmy A, Krishnamachari B. Energy-efficient forwarding strategies for geographic routing in lossy wireless sensor networks. Proc 2nd Int Conf Embedded Networked Sensor Sys 2004; 108-21.
Mahapatra A, Anand K, Agrawal DP. QoS and energy aware routing for real-time traffic in wireless sensor networks. Comp Commun 2006; 29(4): 437-5.
Chipara O, He Z, Xing G. Real-time power-aware routing in sensor networks. 14th IEEE Int Workshop Quality Serv New Haven, CT. 2006; pp. 2006; 83-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWQOS. 2006.250454]
Chipara O, Lu C, Roman GC. Efficient power management based on application timing semantics for wireless sensor networks. Proc 25th IEEE Int Conf IEEE 2005; 361-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWQOS. 2006.250454]
Qiao J, Liu S, Qi X, Zheng G. Transmission power control in wireless sensor networks under the minimum connected average node degree constraint. Int J Smart Sensing Intell Syst 2015; 8(1): 821.
Yu Y, Prasanna VK, Krishnamachari B. Energy minimization for real-time data gathering in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 2006; 5(10): 3087-96.
Chipara O, Lu C, Stankovic J. Dynamic conflict-free query scheduling for wireless sensor networks. Proc 2006 14th IEEE Int Conf 2006 2006; 321-1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICNP. 2006.320182]
Chipara O, Lu C, Roman GC. Real-time query scheduling for wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Comput 2013; 62(9): 1850-65.
Munir S, Lin S, Hoque E, Nirjon SMS, Stankovic JA. Addressing burstiness for reliable communication and latency bound generation in wireless sensor networks. Proc 9th ACM/IEEE Int Conf Info Process Sensor Netw ACM 2010; 303-14.
Heo J, Hong J, Cho Y. EARQ: Energy Aware Routing for real-time and reliable communication in wireless industrial sensor networks. IEEE Transact Indust Informatics 2009; 5(1): 3-11.
Xue L, Yuan Y, Guan X, Liu Z, Yang B. Velocity-based routing strategy for quality-of-service management in wireless sensor networks. IET Wireless Sensor Syst 2012; 2(3): 238.
Liu K, Abu-Ghazaleh N, Kang KD. iTS: Just-in-Time Scheduling for real-time sensor data dissemination. Pervasive computing and communications, 2006. PerCom 4th Annual IEEE Int Conf 2006; 42-6.
Chauhan A, Mittal S. Efficient field coverage using mobile sensors Signal Process Commun (ICSC). Int Conf IEEE 2016; pp. 16-21.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [63 - 78]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/2210327909666190207164153
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 11