Advances in genetic engineering and genomic studies facilitated the
development of animal models of human diseases. To date, numerous models based on
different animal species are available for the most socially significant human diseases,
such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders.
Modern genetic methods allow creating animals with certain genes up- or downregulated,
as well as bearing specific mutations. However, this precision is not easy to
translate into clinical practice: animal models still have their limitations, including both
physiological and genetic differences between humans and animals and complexity of
disease conditions that are difficult to reproduce. In this review, we will discuss the most
relevant modern techniques that allow creating genetically engineered animal models.
Keywords: Gene editing, genetic engineering, animal model, CRISPR, human disease, Chromosome 1.
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