Antimicrobial Activity of Agarwood Oil Against Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR) Microbes of Clinical, Food and Environmental Origin

Author(s): Bhoj R. Singh*, Dharmendra K. Sinha, Vinodh K. OR, Prasanna Vadhana, Monika Bhardwaj, Archana Saraf, Sakshi Dubey, Abhijit M Pawde, Ujjwal K. De, Vinod K. Gupta

Journal Name: Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Volume 17 , Issue 3 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background and Objectives: Multiple-Drug-Resistance (MDR) among bacteria is an imminent problem and alternative therapies are seen as a future abode. Agarwood Oil (AO) is described to possess antimicrobial activity besides many other medicinal utilities. This paper discusses the antimicrobial activity of AO on MDR and non-MDR strains of microbes of 69 genera isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples.

Methods and Results: In this study sensitivity of microbes was determined for conventional antimicrobials and AO using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using agar well dilution assay. A total of 18.5% (522) strains were found sensitive to AO. Carbapenem resistant bacterial strains were more often (p, ≤0.01) resistant to antibiotics with 4.2 times more odds (99% CI, 2.99-5.90) of being MDR than carbapenem sensitive strains but no difference in their AO sensitivity was observed. However, MDR strains were more often (p, <0.001) resistant to AO than non-MDR strains. Bacteria isolated from dogs were more often sensitive to AO than those from buffaloes, human, horse, and cattle. On the other hand, bacteria from pigs were more often (p, ≤0.05) resistant to AO than bacteria from human, cattle, buffaloes, dogs, wild carnivores and birds. Oxidase positive Gram positive bacteria had 4.29 (95% CI, 2.94-6.27) times more odds to be AO sensitive than oxidase negative Gram negative bacteria. Bacillus species strains were the most sensitive bacteria to AO followed by strains of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The MIC of AO for different bacteria ranged from 0.01 mg/mL to > 2.56 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The study concluded that MDR and AO resistance had a similar trend and AO may not be seen as a good antimicrobial agent against MDR strains.

Keywords: Agarwood oil, MDR, carbapenem resistance, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), herbal antimicrobial, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

2014.WHO’s first global report on antibiotic resistance reveals serious, worldwide threat to public health
Kumar S, Singh BR. An overview of mechanisms and emergence of antimicrobials drug resistance. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2013; 1(2S): 7-14.
Pendleton JN, Gorman SP, Gilmore BF. Clinical relevance of the ESKAPE pathogens. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2013; 11(3): 297-308.
[] [PMID: 23458769]
2011.Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
2004.WHO guidelines on safety monitoring of herbal medicines in pharmacovigilance systems
Nascimento GGF, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silv GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2000; 31: 247-56.
Ng LT, Chang YS, Kadir AA. A review on agar (gaharu) producing Aquilaria species. J Trop For Prod 1997; 2(2): 272-85.
Galgoczy L, Kovaks L, Papp T, Vagvolgy IP. Paeoacremonium. In: Liu D.Molecular detection of human fungal pathogens. CRC Press 2011; pp. 468-79.
Chen H, Yang Y, Xue J, Wei J, Zhang Z, Chen H. Comparison of compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from chemically stimulated agarwood, wild agarwood and healthy Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) gilg trees. Molecules 2011; 16(6): 4884-96.
[] [PMID: 21677602]
Wetwitayaklung P, Thavanapong N, Charoenteeraboon J. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of heartwood of aquilaria crassna obtained from water distillation and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction silpakorn Univ Sci Technol 2009; 3: 25-33..
Singh BR. Antimicrobial and herbal drug resistance pattern of important pathogens of animal health importance at Bareilly. Proceedings of Indian Veterinary Congress. 71-9.
Singh BR, Sinha DK, Kumar VOR. Effect of herbal antimicrobials on bacterial strains of foods of vegetable and animal origin. Journal of Food Chemistry and Nanotechnology 2016; 2(3): 115-23.
Vadhana P, Singh BR, Bharadwaj M, Singh SV. Emergence of herbal antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical bacterial isolates. Pharm Anal Acta 2015; 6: 434.
Bhardwaj M, Singh BR, Sinha DK, et al. Potential of herbal drug and antibiotic combination therapy: A new approach to treat multidrug resistant bacteria. Pharm Anal Acta 2016; 7: 1-4.
Carter GR. Diagnostic procedures in veterinary microbiology. 2nd ed. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publishers 1975.
Singh BR. Labtop for Microbiology Laboratory. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing 2009.
Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests 24th informational supplement, Document M100-S24 and M11-A8.
Singh BR. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis [L.] Sage oil on veterinary clinical isolates of bacteria. Noto-are. Medicine (Baltimore) 2013.
Singh BR, Kumar VOR, Sinha DK, Bhardwaj M, Saraf A, Vadhana P. Antimicrobial resistance profile of enteropathogens isolated from diarrhea patients: Herbal antimicrobials, a ray of hope. Annals of Pharmacology and Pharmacy 2017; 2(13): 1068.
Vadhana PA. Molecular studies on resistance against carvacrol in Esche-richia coli / Pseudomonas aeruginosa PhD Thesis, ICARIndian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 2017;; 93.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 15 July, 2020
Page: [348 - 356]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1570163816666190125163536
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 21