Dysfunction of Magnocellular/dorsal Processing Stream in Schizophrenia

Author(s): Sergio Chieffi*

Journal Name: Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews
Formerly Current Psychiatry Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Patients with schizophrenia show not only cognitive, but also perceptual deficits. Perceptual deficits may affect different sensory modalities. Among these, the impairment of visual information processing is of particular relevance as demonstrated by the high incidence of visual disturbances. In recent years, the study of neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie visuo-perceptual, -spatial and -motor disorders in schizophrenia has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers.

Objective: The study aims to review the existent literature on magnocellular/dorsal (occipitoparietal) visual processing stream impairment in schizophrenia. The impairment of relatively early stages of visual information processing was examined using experimental paradigms such as backward masking, contrast sensitivity, contour detection, and perceptual closure. The deficits of late processing stages were detected by examining visuo-spatial and -motor abilities.

Results: Neurophysiological and behavioral studies support the existence of deficits in the processing of visual information along the magnocellular/dorsal pathway. These deficits appear to affect both early and late stages of visual information processing.

Conclusion: The existence of disturbances in the early processing of visual information along the magnocellular/dorsal pathway is strongly supported by neurophysiological and behavioral observations. Early magnocellular dysfunction may provide a substrate for late dorsal processing impairment as well as higher-level cognition deficits.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, magnocellular, dorsal, attention, perception, vision, neglect, motor imagery.

Chieffi S, Iavarone A, La Marra M, et al. Vulnerability to distraction in schizophrenia. J Psychiatry 2015; 18: 228.
Gold JM, Carpenter C, Randolph C, Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR. Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting test performance in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54(2): 159-65.
McGurk SR, Coleman T, Harvey PD, et al. Working memory performance in poor outcome schizophrenia: relationship to age and executive functioning. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2004; 26(2): 153-60.
Kerns JG, Berenbaum H, Barch DM, Banich MT, Stolar N. Word production in schizophrenia and its relationship to positive symptoms. Psychiatry Res 1999; 87(1): 29-37.
Goldberg TE, Aloia MS, Gourovitch ML, Missar D, Pickar D, Weinberger DR. Cognitive substrates of thought disorder, I: the semantic system. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155(12): 1671-6.
Saykin AJ, Gur RC, Gur RE, et al. Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment in memory and learning. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48(7): 618-24.
Saykin AJ, Shtasel DL, Gur RE, et al. Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51(2): 124-31.
Goldberg TE, Saint-Cyr JA, Weinberger DR. Assessment of procedural learning and problem solving in schizophrenic patients by Tower of Hanoi type tasks. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1990; 2(2): 165-73.
Pantelis C, Barnes TR, Nelson HE, et al. Frontal-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Brain 1997; 120(10): 1823-43.
Butler PD, Silverstein SM, Dakin SC. Visual perception and its impairment in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2008; Jul 1 64(1): 40-7.
Silverstein SM. Visual perception disturbances in schizophrenia: a unified model. Nebr Symp Motiv 2016; 63: 77-132.
McGhie A, Chapman J. Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. Br J Med Psychol 1961; 34: 103-16.
Chapman J. The early symptoms of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1966; 112(484): 225-51.
Ebel H, Gross G, Klosterkötter J, Huber G. Basic symptoms in schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Psychopathology 1989; 22(4): 224-32.
Huber G, Gross G. The concept of basic symptoms in schizophrenic and schizoaffective psychoses. Recenti Prog Med 1989; 80(12): 646-52.
Phillipson OT, Harris JP. Perceptual changes in schizophrenia: a questionnaire survey. Psychol Med 1985; 15(4): 859-66.
Cutting J, Dunne F. The nature of the abnormal perceptual experiences at the onset of schizophrenia. Psychopathology 1986; 19(6): 347-52.
Waters F, Collerton D, Ffytche DH, et al. Visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum and comparative information from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. Schizophr Bull 2014; 40(Suppl. 4): S233-45.
Silbersweig D, Stern E. Functional neuroimaging of hallucinations in schizophrenia: toward an integration of bottom-up and top-down approaches. Mol Psychiatry 1996; 1(5): 367-75.
Oertel V, Rotarska-Jagiela A, van de Ven VG, Haenschel C, Maurer K, Linden DE. Visual hallucinations in schizophrenia investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res 2007; 156(3): 269-73.
Jardri R, Thomas P, Delmaire C, Delion P, Pins D. The neurodynamic organization of modality-dependent hallucinations. Cereb Cortex 2013; 23(5): 1108-17.
Hébert M, Gagné AM, Paradis ME, et al. Retinal response to light in young nonaffected offspring at high genetic risk of neuropsychiatric brain disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67(3): 270-4.
Schubert EW, Henriksson KM, McNeil TF. A prospective study of offspring of women with psychosis: visual dysfunction in early childhood predicts schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in adulthood. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2005; 112(5): 385-93.
Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, Schultze-Lutter F. Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58(2): 158-64.
Ardekani BA, Nierenberg J, Hoptman MJ, Javitt DC, Lim KO. MRI study of white matter diffusion anisotropy in schizophrenia. Neuroreport 2003; 14(16): 2025-9.
Kumra S, Ashtari M, McMeniman M, et al. Reduced frontal white matter integrity in early-onset schizophrenia: a preliminary study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55(12): 1138-45.
Dorph-Petersen KA, Pierri JN, Wu Q, Sampson AR, Lewis DA. Primary visual cortex volume and total neuron number are reduced in schizophrenia. J Comp Neurol 2007; 501(2): 290-301.
Desimone R, Ungerleider LG. In: Boller F, Grafman J, Eds Neural Mechanisms of Visual Processing in Monkeys Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol 2 Amsterdam: Elsevier 1989; pp. 267-300.
Felleman DJ, Van Essen DC. Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 1991; 1(1): 1-47.
Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M. In: Ingle DJ, Goodale MA, Mansfield RJW, Eds Two Cortical Visual Systems Analysis of Visual Behavior Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1982; pp. 549-586.
Mishkin M, Ungerleider LG, Macko KA. Object vision and spatial vision: two cortical pathways. Trends Neurosci 1983; 6: 414-7.
Young MP. Objective analysis of the topological organization of the primate cortical visual system. Nature 1992; 358(6382): 152-5.
Weller RE. In: Hicks TP, Benedek G Two Cortical Visual Systems in Old World and New World Primates Progress in Brain Research, vol 75 Amsterdam: Elsevier 1988; pp. 293-306.
Merigan WH, Maunsell JH. How parallel are the primate visual pathways? Annu Rev Neurosci 1993; 16: 369-402.
Vidyasagar TR. A neuronal model of attentional spotlight: parietal guiding the temporal. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1999; 30(1): 66-76.
Steinman BA, Steinman SB, Lehmkuhle S. Transient visual attention is dominated by the magnocellular stream. Vision Res 1997; 37(1): 17-23.
Desimone R, Schein SJ. Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form. J Neurophysiol 1987; 57(3): 835-68.
Schein SJ, Desimone R. Spectral properties of V4 neurons in the macaque. J Neurosci 1990; 10(10): 3369-89.
Schwartz EL, Desimone R, Albright TD, Gross CG. Shape recognition and inferior temporal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983; 80(18): 5776-8.
Desimone R, Albright TD, Gross CG, Bruce C. Stimulus-selective properties of inferior temporal neurons in the macaque. J Neurosci 1984; 4(8): 2051-62.
Tanaka K, Saito H, Fukada Y, Moriya M. Coding visual images of objects in the inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey. J Neurophysiol 1991; 66(1): 170-89.
Baylis GC, Rolls ET, Leonard CM. Selectivity between faces in the responses of a population of neurons in the cortex in the superior temporal sulcus of the monkey. Brain Res 1985; 342(1): 91-102.
Rolls ET, Baylis GC, Leonard CM. Role of low and high spatial frequencies in the face-selective responses of neurons in the cortex in the superior temporal sulcus in the monkey. Vision Res 1985; 25(8): 1021-35.
Perrett DI, Rolls ET, Caan W. Visual neurones responsive to faces in the monkey temporal cortex. Exp Brain Res 1982; 47(3): 329-42.
Desimone R. Face-selective cells in the temporal cortex of monkeys. J Cogn Neurosci 1991; 3(1): 1-8.
Perrett DI, Hietanen JK, Oram MW, Benson PJ. Organization and functions of cells responsive to faces in the temporal cortex. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1992; 335(1273): 23-30.
Movshon JA, Adelson EH, Gizzi MS, Newsome WT. In: Chagas C, Gattass R, Gross C, Eds The Analysis of Moving Visual Patterns Pattern Recognition Mechanisms Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences 1985; pp. 117-151.
Tanaka K, Saito H. Analysis of motion of the visual field by direction, expansion/contraction, and rotation cells clustered in the dorsal part of the medial superior temporal area of the macaque monkey. J Neurophysiol 1989; 62(3): 626-41.
Duffy CJ, Wurtz RH. Sensitivity of MST neurons to optic flow stimuli. I. A continuum of response selectivity to large-field stimuli. J Neurophysiol 1991; 65(6): 1329-45.
Andersen RA, Bracewell RM, Barash S, Gnadt JW, Fogassi L. Eye position effects on visual, memory, and saccade-related activity in areas LIP and 7a of macaque. J Neurosci 1990; 10(4): 1176-96.
Duhamel JR, Colby CL, Goldberg ME. The updating of the representation of visual space in parietal cortex by intended eye movements. Science 1992; 255(5040): 90-2.
Maunsell JH, Van Essen DC. Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation. J Neurophysiol 1983; 49(5): 1127-47.
Norman J. Two visual systems and two theories of perception: An attempt to reconcile the constructivist and ecological approaches. Behav Brain Sci 2002; 25(1): 73-96.
Schuck JR, Lee RG. Backward masking, information processing, and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1989; 15(3): 491-500.
Green MF, Lee J, Wynn JK, Mathis KI. Visual masking in schizophrenia: overview and theoretical implications. Schizophr Bull 2011; 37(4): 700-8.
Saccuzzo DP, Hirt M, Spencer TJ. Backward masking as a measure of attention in schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 1974; 83(5): 512-22.
Green MF, Nuechterlein KH, Mintz J. Backward masking in schizophrenia and mania. I. Specifying a mechanism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51(12): 939-44.
Cadenhead KS, Serper Y, Braff DL. Transient versus sustained visual channels in the visual backward masking deficits of schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 43(2): 132-8.
Butler PD, DeSanti LA, Maddox J, et al. Visual backward-masking deficits in schizophrenia: relationship to visual pathway function and symptomatology. Schizophr Res 2003; 59(2-3): 199-209.
Schechter I, Butler PD, Silipo G, Zemon V, Javitt DC. Magnocellular and parvocellular contributions to backward masking dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 64(2-3): 91-101.
Rund BR, Egeland J, Sundet K, et al. Early visual information processing in schizophrenia compared to recurrent depression. Schizophr Res 2004; 68(2-3): 111-8.
Saccuzzo DP, Miller S. Critical interstimulus interval in delusional schizophrenics and normals. J Abnorm Psychol 1977; 86(3): 261-6.
Saccuzzo DP, Braff DL. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38(2): 175-9.
Green MF, Nuechterlein KH, Breitmeyer B, Mintz J. Backward masking in unmedicated schizophrenic patients in psychotic remission: possible reflection of aberrant cortical oscillation. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156(9): 1367-73.
Green M, Walker E. Symptom correlates of vulnerability to backward masking in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143(2): 181-6.
Butler PD, Harkavy-Friedman JM, Amador XF, Gorman JM. Backward masking in schizophrenia: relationship to medication status, neuropsychological functioning, and dopamine metabolism. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 40(4): 295-8.
Green MF, Nuechterlein KH, Breitmeyer B. Backward masking performance in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients. Evidence for a vulnerability indicator. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54(5): 465-72.
Kéri S, Kelemen O, Benedek G, Janka Z. Different trait markers for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a neurocognitive approach. Psychol Med 2001; 31(5): 915-22.
Green MF, Nuechterlein KH, Breitmeyer B, Mintz J. Forward and backward visual masking in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59(5): 446-51.
Green MF, Lee J, Cohen MS, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of visual masking deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66(12): 1295-303.
Green MF, Glahn D, Engel SA, et al. Regional brain activity associated with visual backward masking. J Cogn Neurosci 2005; 17(1): 13-23.
Grill-Spector K. The neural basis of object perception. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2003; 13(2): 159-66.
Lee J, Cohen MS, Engel SA, et al. Regional brain activity during early visual perception in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 68(1): 78-85.
Harvey PO, Lee J, Cohen MS, et al. Altered dynamic coupling of lateral occipital complex during visual perception in schizophrenia. Neuroimage 2011; 55(3): 1219-26.
Kaplan E. In: Leventhal AG, Ed Vision and Visual Dysfunction Boston, Mass: CRC Press 1991; pp. 10–40.
Tootell RB, Hamilton SL, Switkes E. Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. IV. Contrast and magno-parvo streams. J Neurosci 1988; 8(5): 1594-609.
Derrington AM, Lennie P. Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque. J Physiol 1984; 357: 219-40.
Slaghuis WL. Contrast sensitivity for stationary and drifting spatial frequency gratings in positive- and negative-symptom schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 1998; 107(1): 49-62.
Kéri S, Antal A, Szekeres G, Benedek G, Janka Z. Spatiotemporal visual processing in schizophrenia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002; 14(2): 190-6.
Butler PD, Zemon V, Schechter I, et al. Early-stage visual processing and cortical amplification deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62(5): 495-504.
Butler PD, Martinez A, Foxe JJ, et al. Subcortical visual dysfunction in schizophrenia drives secondary cortical impairments. Brain 2007; 130(2): 417-30.
Chen Y, Levy DL, Sheremata S, Nakayama K, Matthysse S, Holzman PS. Effects of typical, atypical, and no antipsychotic drugs on visual contrast detection in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(10): 1795-801.
Cadenhead KS, Dobkins K, McGovern J, Shafer K. Schizophrenia spectrum participants have reduced visual contrast sensitivity to chromatic (red/green) and luminance (light/dark) stimuli: new insights into information processing, visual channel function, and antipsychotic effects. Front Psychol 2013; 4: 535.
Kéri S, Benedek G. Visual contrast sensitivity alterations in inferred magnocellular pathways and anomalous perceptual experiences in people at high-risk for psychosis. Vis Neurosci 2007; 24(2): 183-9.
Kiss I, Fábián A, Benedek G, Kéri S. When doors of perception open: visual contrast sensitivity in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 2010; 119(3): 586-93.
Bulens C, Meerwaldt JD, van der Wildt GJ, Keemink CJ. Visual contrast sensitivity in drug-induced Parkinsonism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989; 52(3): 341-5.
Bulens C, Meerwaldt JD, van der Wildt GJ, Keemink CJ. Contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1986; 36(8): 1121-5.
Gottlob I, Stangler-Zuschrott E. Effect of levodopa on contrast sensitivity and scotomas in human amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990; 31(4): 776-80.
Elliott DB. Contrast sensitivity decline with ageing: a neural or optical phenomenon? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1987; 7(4): 415-9.
Bäckman L, Nyberg L, Lindenberger U, Li SC, Farde L. The correlative triad among aging, dopamine, and cognition: current status and future prospects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006; 30(6): 791-807.
Kegeles LS, Abi-Dargham A, Frankle WG, et al. Increased synaptic dopamine function in associative regions of the striatum in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67(3): 231-9.
Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A, Gil R, Kegeles L, Innis R. Increased dopamine transmission in schizophrenia: relationship to illness phases. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46(1): 56-72.
Elkashef AM, Doudet D, Bryant T, Cohen RM, Li SH, Wyatt RJ. 6-(18)F-DOPA PET study in patients with schizophrenia. Positron emission tomography. Psychiatry Res 2000; 100(1): 1-11.
Slifstein M, van de Giessen E, Van Snellenberg J, et al. Deficits in prefrontal cortical and extrastriatal dopamine release in schizophrenia: a positron emission tomographic functional magnetic resonance imaging study. JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72(4): 316-24.
Knight RA. In: Walker EF, Dworkin RH, Cornblatt BA, Eds Progress in Experimental Personality and Psychopathology Research, vol 15 New York City: Springer 1992; pp. 253-89.
Chey J, Holzman PS. Perceptual organization in schizophrenia: utilization of the Gestalt principles. J Abnorm Psychol 1997; 106(4): 530-8.
Parnas J, Vianin P, Saebye D, Jansson L, Volmer-Larsen A, Bovet P. Visual binding abilities in the initial and advanced stages of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001; 103(3): 171-80.
Silverstein SM, Kovács I, Corry R, Valone C. Perceptual organization, the disorganization syndrome, and context processing in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2000; 43(1): 11-20.
Uhlhaas PJ, Phillips WA, Silverstein SM. The course and clinical correlates of dysfunctions in visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia during the remission of psychotic symptoms. Schizophr Res 2005; 75(2-3): 183-92.
Silverstein SM, Berten S, Essex B, Kovács I, Susmaras T, Little DM. An fMRI examination of visual integration in schizophrenia. J Integr Neurosci 2009; 8(2): 175-202.
Silverstein SM, Harms MP, Carter CS, et al. Cortical contributions to impaired contour integration in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 2015; 75: 469-80.
Doniger GM, Foxe JJ, Murray MM, Higgins BA, Javitt DC. Impaired visual object recognition and dorsal/ventral stream interaction in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59(11): 1011-20.
Sehatpour P, Dias EC, Butler PD, et al. Impaired visual object processing across an occipital-frontal-hippocampal brain network in schizophrenia: an integrated neuroimaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67(8): 772-82.
Bar M, Tootell RB, Schacter DL, et al. Cortical mechanisms specific to explicit visual object recognition. Neuron 2001; 29(2): 529-35.
Bar M. A cortical mechanism for triggering top-down facilitation in visual object recognition. J Cogn Neurosci 2003; 15(4): 600-9.
Kveraga K, Boshyan J, Bar M. Magnocellular projections as the trigger of top-down facilitation in recognition. J Neurosci 2007; 27(48): 13232-40.
Chen Y, Palafox GP, Nakayama K, Levy DL, Matthysse S, Holzman PS. Motion perception in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56(2): 149-54.
Chen Y, Nakayama K, Levy DL, Matthysse S, Holzman PS. Psychophysical isolation of a motion-processing deficit in schizophrenics and their relatives and its association with impaired smooth pursuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96(8): 4724-9.
Kim D, Wylie G, Pasternak R, Butler PD, Javitt DC. Magnocellular contributions to impaired motion processing in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2006; 82(1): 1-8.
Clementz BA, McDowell JE, Dobkins KR. Compromised speed discrimination among schizophrenia patients when viewing smooth pursuit targets. Schizophr Res 2007; 95(1-3): 61-4.
Hong LE, Turano KA, O’Neill HB, et al. Is motion perception deficit in schizophrenia a consequence of eye-tracking abnormality? Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65(12): 1079-85.
Chen Y. Abnormal visual motion processing in schizophrenia: a review of research progress. Schizophr Bull 2011; 37(4): 709-15.
Chen Y, Levy DL, Sheremata S, Holzman PS. Compromised late-stage motion processing in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55(8): 834-41.
Chen Y, Nakayama K, Levy D, Matthysse S, Holzman P. Processing of global, but not local, motion direction is deficient in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 61(2-3): 215-27.
Maunsell JH, van Essen DC. The connections of the middle temporal visual area (MT) and their relationship to a cortical hierarchy in the macaque monkey. J Neurosci 1983; 3(12): 2563-86.
Newsome WT, Paré EB. A selective impairment of motion perception following lesions of the middle temporal visual area (MT). J Neurosci 1988; 8(6): 2201-11.
Tootell RB, Reppas JB, Kwong KK, et al. Functional analysis of human MT and related visual cortical areas using magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 1995; 15(4): 3215-30.
Born RT, Tootell RB. Segregation of global and local motion processing in primate middle temporal visual area. Nature 1992; 357(6378): 497-9.
Chen Y, Grossman ED, Bidwell LC, et al. Differential activation patterns of occipital and prefrontal cortices during motion processing: evidence from normal and schizophrenic brains. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2008; 8(3): 293-303.
Eglin M, Robertson LC, Knight RT. Visual search performance in the neglect syndrome. J Cogn Neurosci 1989; 1(4): 372-85.
Newcombe F, Ratcliff G. In: Boller F, Grafman J, Eds Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol 2 Amsterdam: Elsevier 1989; pp. 333-56.
Zihl J, von Cramon D, Mai N, Schmid C. Disturbance of movement vision after bilateral posterior brain damage. Further evidence and follow up observations. Brain 1991; 114(5): 2235-52.
Chieffi S, Gentilucci M, Allport A, Sasso E, Rizzolatti G. Study of selective reaching and grasping in a patient with unilateral parietal lesion. Dissociated effects of residual spatial neglect. Brain 1993; 116(5): 1119-37.
Chieffi S, Messina G, Messina A, et al. Memory for spatial locations in a patient with near space neglect and optic ataxia: Involvement of the occipitotemporal stream. Front Neurol 2017; 8: 231.
Damasio AR, Tranel D, Damasio H. Disorders of Visual Recognition In: Boller F, Grafman J, Ed Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol 2 Amsterdam: Elsevier 1989; 317-32.
Farah MJ. Visual Agnosia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1990.
Chieffi S, Ilardi CR, Iavarone A. Parietal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia: a review. Curr Psychiatry Rev 2018; 14(2): 71-83.
Heilman KM, Valenstein E. Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Ann Neurol 1979; 5(2): 166-70.
Bisiach E, Bulgarelli C, Sterzi R, Vallar G. Line bisection and cognitive plasticity of unilateral neglect of space. Brain Cogn 1983; 2(1): 32-8.
Halligan PW, Marshall JC. How long is a piece of string? A study of line bisection in a case of visual neglect. Cortex 1988; 24(2): 321-8.
Marshall JC, Halligan PW. When right goes left: An investigation of line bisection in a case of visual neglect. Cortex 1989; 25(3): 503-15.
Chieffi S, Iavarone A, Carlomagno S. Effects of spatiotopic factors on bisection of radial lines. Exp Brain Res 2008; 189(1): 129-32.
Milner AD, Brechmann M, Pagliarini L. To halve and to halve not: An analysis of line bisection judgements in normal subjects. Neuropsychologia 1992; 30(6): 515-26.
Reuter-Lorenz PA, Kinsbourne M, Moscovitch M. Hemispheric control of spatial attention. Brain Cogn 1990; 12(2): 240-66.
Chieffi S, Messina G, Villano I, et al. Hemispheric asymmetries in radial line bisection: role of retinotopic and spatiotopic factors. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 2200.
Brodie EE, Pettigrew LE. Is left always right? Directional deviations in visual line bisection as a function of hand and initial scanning direction. Neuropsychologia 1996; 34(5): 467-70.
Fukatsu R, Fujii T, Kimura I, Saso S, Kogure K. Effects of hand and spatial conditions on visual line bisection. Tohoku J Exp Med 1990; 161(4): 329-33.
Chieffi S. Visual illusion and line bisection: A bias hypothesis revisited. Exp Brain Res 2016; 234(6): 1451-8.
Chieffi S, Iavarone A, Viggiano A, Monda M, Carlomagno S. Effect of a visual distractor on line bisection. Exp Brain Res 2012; 219(4): 489-98.
Chieffi S, Iachini T, Iavarone A, Messina G, Viggiano A, Monda M. Flanker interference effects in a line bisection task. Exp Brain Res 2014; 232(4): 1327-34.
Chokron S, Bartolomeo P, Perenin MT, Helft G, Imbert M. Scanning direction and line bisection: a study of normal subjects and unilateral neglect patients with opposite reading habits. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 1998; 7(2): 173-8.
Chieffi S, Iavarone A, Iaccarino L, et al. Age-related differences in distractor interference on line bisection. Exp Brain Res 2014; 232(11): 3659-64.
Michel C, Cavézian C, d’Amato T, et al. Pseudoneglect in schizophrenia: A line bisection study with cueing. Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2007; 12(3): 222-34.
Cavézian C, Danckert J, Lerond J, Daléry J, d’Amato T, Saoud M. Visual-perceptual abilities in healthy controls, depressed patients, and schizophrenia patients. Brain Cogn 2007; 64(3): 257-64.
Ozel-Kizil ET, Baskak B, Gunes E, Cicek M, Atbasoglu EC. Hemispatial neglect evaluated by visual line bisection task in schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings. Psychiatry Res 2012; 200(2-3): 133-6.
Tomer R, Flor-Henry P. Neuroleptics reverse attention asymmetries in schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry 1989; 25(7): 852-60.
Cavezian C, Striemer C, Saoud M, Rossetti Y, Danckert J. Schizophrenia and the neglect syndrome: Parallel deficits of parietal cortex. Curr Psychiatry Rev 2006; 2: 439-51.
Downing ME, Phillips JG, Bradshaw JL, Vaddadi KS, Pantelis C. Cue dependent right hemineglect in schizophrenia: A kinematic analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65(4): 454-9.
Danckert J, Saoud M, Maruff P. Attention, motor control and motor imagery in schizophrenia: Implications for the role of the parietal cortex. Schizophr Res 2004; 70: 241-61.
Early TS, Posner MI, Reiman EM, Raichle ME. Hyperactivity of the left striato-pallidal projection. Part I: Lower level theory. Psychiatr Dev 1989; 7(2): 85-108.
Early TS, Posner MI, Reiman EM, Raichle ME. Left striatopallidal hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Part II: Phenomenology and thought disorder. Psychiatr Dev 1989; 7(2): 109-21.
Barnett KJ. Schizophrenia and rightward bias in line bisection. Laterality 2006; 11(1): 36-42.
Rao NP, Arasappa R, Reddy NN, Venkatasubramanian G, Gangadhar BN. Antithetical asymmetry in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder: A line bisection study. Bipolar Disord 2010; 12(3): 221-9.
Benson TL, Park S. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity. Front Hum Neurosci 2013; 7: 756.
Ribolsi M, Lisi G, Di Lorenzo G, et al. Perceptual pseudoneglect in schizophrenia: Candidate endophenotype and the role of the right parietal cortex. Schizophr Bull 2013; 39(3): 601-7.
Zhou SY, Suzuki M, Takahashi T, et al. Parietal lobe volume deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophr Res 2007; 89(1-3): 35-48.
Venkatasubramanian G, Jayakumar PN, Keshavan MS, Gangadhar BN. Schneiderian first rank symptoms and inferior parietal lobule cortical thickness in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011; 35(1): 40-6.
Posner MI. Orienting of attention. Q J Exp Psychol 1980; 32: 3-25.
Posner MI, Petersen SE. The attention system of the human brain. Ann Bey Neurosci 1990; 13: 25-42.
Posner MI. Orienting of attention: Then and now. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2016; 69(10): 1864-75.
Corbetta M, Miezin FM, Shulman GL, Petersen SE. A PET study of visuospatial attention. J Neurosci 1993; 13(3): 1202-26.
Kelley TA, Serences JT, Giesbrecht B, Yantis S. Cortical mechanisms for shifting and holding visuospatial attention. Cereb Cortex 2008; 18(1): 114-25.
Posner MI, Early TS, Reiman E, Pardo PJ, Dhawan M. Asymmetries in hemispheric control of attention in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psych 1988; 45: 814-21.
Maruff P, Hay D, Malone V, Currie J. Asymmetries in the covert orienting of visual spatial attention in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 1995; 33(10): 1205-23.
Posner MI, Walker JA, Friedrich FJ, Rafal RD. Effects of parietal lobe injury on covert orienting of visual attention. J Neurosci 1984; 4(7): 1863-74.
Maruff P, Pantelis C, Danckert J, Smith D, Currie J. Deficits in the endogenous redirection of covert visual attention in chronic schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 1996; 34(11): 1079-84.
Carnahan H, Aguilar O, Malla A, Norman R. An investigation into movement planning and execution deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1997; 23(3): 213-21.
Morrens M, Hulstijn W, Matton C, et al. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2008; 13(6): 457-71.
Docx L, Morrens M, Bervoets C, et al. Parsing the components of the psychomotor syndrome in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2012; 126(4): 256-65.
Bervoets C, Docx L, Sabbe B, et al. The nature of the relationship of psychomotor slowing with negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2014; 19(1): 36-46.
Downing ME, Phillips JG, Bradshaw JL, Vaddadi KS, Pantelis C. Cue dependent right hemineglect in schizophrenia: a kinematic analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65(4): 454-9.
Williams SB, Phillips JG, Bellgrove ML, Bradshaw JL, Bradshaw JA, Pantelis C. Use of advance information in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2000; 22(4): 472-82.
Decety J, Michel F. Comparative analysis of actual and mental movement times in two graphic tasks. Brain Cogn 1989; 11(1): 87-97.
Decety J, Jeannerod M, Prablanc C. The timing of mentally represented actions. Behav Brain Res 1989; 34(1-2): 35-42.
Parsons LM. Temporal and kinematic properties of motor behavior reflected in mentally simulated action. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 1994; 20(4): 709-30.
Fitts PM. The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. J Exp Psychol 1954; 47(6): 381-91.
Danckert J, Rossetti Y, d’Amato T, Dalery J, Saoud M. Exploring imagined movements in patients with schizophrenia. Neuroreport 2002; 13(5): 605-9.
Maruff P, Wilson P, Currie J. Abnormalities of motor imagery associated with somatic passivity phenomena in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 60(2-3): 229-38.
Sirigu A, Duhamel JR, Cohen L, Pillon B, Dubois B, Agid Y. The mental representation of hand movements after parietal cortex damage. Science 1996; 273(5281): 1564-8.
Bottini G, Bisiach E, Sterzi R, Vallar G. Feeling touches in someone else’s hand. Neuroreport 2002; 13(2): 249-52.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 19 January, 2019
Page: [26 - 36]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1573400515666190119163522

Article Metrics

PDF: 21