Background: Aluminum Al(III) is the most significant metal in the earth's crust to which
humans are frequently exposed and has several industrial applications. On the other hand, Al (III) has
high potential toxic impacts on some human pathologies like Parkinson and Alzheimer's disease. So,
it is very important to monitor and determine the trace level of Al (III) in various environmental and
Objective: In the present work, a novel green supramolecular Solvent-Based Liquid-Phase
Microextraction (SS-LPME) procedure has been developed to preconcentrate and determine
aluminum (III) in various real samples.
Methods: The proposed procedure was based on the application of 1-decanol/THF as a
Supramolecular Solvent (SS) system and quinalizarin as a chelating agent. Al(III)-quinalizarin
hydrophobic complex was obtained at pH 7.0, extracted into supramolecular solvent phase (1-
decanol/THF), centrifuged and then measured spectrophotometrically at 580 nm. The impact of
different analytical parameters on the microextraction efficiency was studied and optimized. The
validation of the proposed preconcentration procedure was checked using certified reference
Results: The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2.0-150 μg L-1. The developed method has
preconcentration factor of 40 and detection limit (LOD) was 0.20 μg L-1. The precision of the method
was confirmed with low relative standard deviation (RSD ≤ 1.0%).
Conclusion: This study explores the effectiveness of quinalizarin for the first time together with SS
to develop green SS-LPME method to preconcentrate and separate trace quantities of Al (III) in real
water, fruit juice, food, hair, and urine samples collected from Saudi Arabia.