Background: Due to its high toxicity and bioaccumulation, the existence of mercury in
the environment is always a big threat to human beings. In order to control mercury pollution, scientists
have put great efforts in the past decades.
Methods: Precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation, biological treatment and ion exchange are
reviewed as a remover for mercury removal. For each material type, we not only reported on the
removal mechanism, but also discussed the best areas for it. The correlation method and step-to-step
focusing method have been used for references.
Results: For better mercury removal, the ways above are compared together. The mechanisms of
removing mercury in different ways are summarized in this paper.
Conclusion: With the exploration and application of research, people have mastered a variety of
mature technologies for the treatment of mercury-containing wastewater. Using inexpensive adsorbents
is a cost-effective method for treating low concentrations of heavy metal wastewater. Ion exchange
with a fast removal rate has been widely used in the field of heavy metal removal from
wastewater. The biological treatment method can effectively treat low-concentration mercurycontaining
wastewater. However, there is still a need to develop novel mercury removers with high
capacity, fast removal rate, and low removal limit. Nanomaterials with a high specific surface area
on substrate with synergistic effects, such as high adsorption and ion exchange, are the future research