Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has a significant impact on organ transplant, cosmetic surgery, surgical
planning, prosthetics and other medical fields. Recently, 3 DP attracted the attention as a promising method
for the production of small-scale drug production. The knowledge expansion about the population differences in
metabolism and genetics grows the need for personalised medicine substantially. In personalised medicine, the
patient receives a tailored dose and the release profile is based on his pharmacokinetics data. 3 DP is expected to
be one of the leading solutions for the personalisation of the drug dispensing. This technology can fabricate a
drug-device with complicated geometries and fillings to obtain the needed drug release profile. The extrusionbased
3 DP is the most explored method for investigating the feasibility of the technology to produce a novel
dosage form with properties that are difficult to achieve using the conventional industrial methods. Extrusionbased
3 DP is divided into two techniques, the semi-solid extrusion (SSE) and the fused deposition modeling
(FDM). This review aims to explain the extrusion principles behind the two techniques and discuss their capabilities
to fabricate novel dosage forms. The advantages and limitations observed through the application of SSE and
FDM for fabrication of drug dosage forms were discussed in this review. Further exploration and development are
required to implement this technology in the healthcare frontline for more effective and personalised treatment.
Keywords: 3D printing, semisolid extrusion, fused deposition modeling, drug delivery, personalized medicine, pharmacokinetics data.
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