Biofuels in Automobiles: Advantages and Disadvantages: A Review

Author(s): Ashraf Elfasakhany*

Journal Name: Current Alternative Energy

Volume 3 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Biofuels are one of the promising alternative fuel sources for automobiles. The use of biofuels in combustion engines of automobiles showed many advantages and disadvantages. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of using biofuels in internal combustion engines are reviewed and summarized based on early studies. Biofuels can offer favorable well-towheel CO2 balance in our environment and improve engine power and efficiency. Oxygen contents in biofuels also provide advantages for the fuel combustion. However, biofuels, also showed some disadvantages, like corrosiveness to engine systems and low heating values of biofuels. Boiling temperature, absorption with water, vapor toxicity, and autoignition of biofuels showed advantages for some types and drawbacks for others.

Keywords: Advantages, automobiles, biofuels, disadvantages, gasoline, review.

D.I. Stern, "Reversal of the trend in global anthropogenic sulfur emissions", Glob. Environ. Change. vol 16(2), pp. 207-220, 2006.
"National Air Pollutant Emissions Trends 1900-1998. USEPA report no. 454/R-00-002,", 2000
"National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, special studies edition. USEPA report no. 454/R-03-005, ", 2003
L. Tao, N. Berge, A. Elfasakhany, and X.S. Bai, "Experimental and numerical studies of a pulverised wood flame", 6th Europ. Conf. on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers.Portugal 2002
A. Elfasakhany, and X.S. Bai, "Simulation of wood powder flames in a vertical furnace", Third Mediterranean Combustion Symposium.Marrakech, Morocco 2003, pp. 144.
A. Elfasakhany, X.S. Bai, B. Espenas, L. Tao, and J. Larfeldt, "Effect of moisture and volatile releases on motion of pulverised wood particles", Seventh International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean, Lisbon, Portugal. 2003, pp. 167.
A. Elfasakhany, Modeling of pulverised wood flames."PhD thesis, fluid mechanics dept., Lund, Sweden, ISBN-13/EAN: 9789162864255,", 2005
A. Elfasakhany, Alcohols as Fuels in Spark Ignition Engines: Second Blended Generation.Book, Lambert Academic Publishing, Bahnhofstrabe 28, Deutschland, Germany, ISBN: 978-3-659- 97691-9,, 2017
A. Elfasakhany, "Powder biomass fast pyrolysis as in combustion conditions: Numerical prediction and validation", Renewable Energy Focus, vol. 27, pp. 78-87, 2018.
A. Elfasakhany, "M. M. Bassuoni, B. Saleh, M. Alsehli, and A. A. Aly, “Biomass powder as a renewable fuel for internal combustion engines", Arctic, vol. 71, pp. 42-52, 2018.
A. Elfasakhany, and X.S. Bai, "Numerical and experimental studies of irregular-shape biomass particle motions in turbulent flows", Engineer. Sci. Technol. vol. 22(1), pp. 249-265, 2019
A. Elfasakhany, and X.S. Bai, "Modeling of pulverised wood combustion: A comparison of different models", Prog. Comput.Fluid Dynamics (PCFD)., vol. 6, pp. 188-199, 2006.
A. Elfasakhany, T. Klason, and X.S. Bai, "modeling of pulverised wood combustion using a functional group model", Combust. Theory Model., vol. 12, pp. 883-904, 2008.
A. Elfasakhany, "Modeling of Secondary Reactions of Tar (SRT) Using a Functional Group Model", Int. J. Mech. Eng. Tech, vol. 3, pp. 123-136, 2012.
A. Elfasakhany, "Reducing automobile pollutant emissions and re-using some of such emissions as a fuel", Ciência e Técnica J.. vol. 32(11), pp. 160-176, 2017.
A. Elfasakhany, L. Tao, and X.S. Bai, "Transport of pulverized wood particles in turbulent flow: Numerical and experimental studies", Energy Procedia, vol. 61, pp. 1540-1543, 2014.
A. Elfasakhany, L. Tao, B. Espenas, J. Larfeldt, and X.S. Bai, "Pulverised wood combustion in a vertical furnace: Experimental and computational analyses", Appl. Energy, vol. 112, pp. 454-464, 2013.
S. Thomas, "Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles", Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, pp. 9279-9296, 2009.
H. Huang, H. Liu, and Y. Gan, "Genetic modification of critical enzymes and involved genes in butanol biosynthesis from biomass", Biotechnol. Adv., vol. 28, pp. 651-657, 2010.
S.J. Cao, A.Y. Hao, H.Y. Sun, and T. Zun, "A convenient preparation of ethoxymethoxymethane and its effect on the solubility of methanol/gasoline blends", Chin. Chem. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 973-976, 2009.
R.L. Furey, and J.B. King, Emissions, fuel economy, and driveability effects of methanol/butanol/gasoline fuel blends. Toronto, Ont, Can: SAE; 1982
M. Gautam, and D.W. Martin, "Combustion characteristics of higher-alcohol/gasoline blends", Proc.- Inst. Mech. Eng.. Vol. 214 (5), pp. 497-511, 2000.
M. Gautam, D.W. Martin, and D. Carder, “Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends”, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs.. vol. 214 (Part A), pp. 165-182, 2000.
G. Broustail, F. Haltern, P. Seers, G. Moréac, and C. Mounaim-Rousselle, "Comparison of regulated and non-regulated pollutants with iso-octane/butanol and iso-octane/ethanol blends in a port-fuel injection Spark-Ignition engine", Fuel, vol. 94, pp. 251-261, 2012.
F. Hasegawa, S. Yokoyama, and K. Imou, "Methanol or ethanol produced from woody biomass: Which is more advantageous?", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, pp. S109-S111, 2010.
A. Elfasakhany, "The effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emission characteristics of spark ignition engines", Int. J. Automotive Eng, vol. 4, pp. 608-620, 2014.
A. Elfasakhany, "“Investigations on the effects of ethanol-methanol-gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: performance and emissions analysis”, Eng. Sci. Tech", JESTECH, vol. 18, pp. 713-719, 2015.
M. Wu, M. Wang, J. Liu, and J. Huo, "“Assessment of potential lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects from using", cornbased butanol as a transportation fuel”, Biotechnol. Prog., , vol. 24, pp. 1204-1214, 2008.
F.H. Palmer, "Vehicle performance of gasoline containing oxygenates", MI Mech. E.. C319/86, pp. 33-46, 1986.
K.J. Kelly, B.K. Bailey, T. Coburn, W. Clark, and P. Lissiuk, Federal test procedure emissions test results from ethanol variable-fuel vehicle. SAE paper no: 990602, pp. 249-260, 1999.
J.S. Cowart, W.E. Boruta, J.D. Dalton, R.F. Dona, F.L. Rivard, R.S. Furby, J.A. Piontkowski, R.E. Seiter, and R.M. Takai, Powertrain development of the 1996 Ford flexible fuel Taurus. SAE paper no. 952751, pp. 115-128, 1995.
R.M. Bata, A.C. Elord, and R.W. Rice, "Emissions from IC engines fueled with alcohol-gasoline blends: A literature review", Trans. ASME, vol. 111, pp. 424-431, 1989.
M. Hasan, "Effect of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 44, pp. 1547-1561, 2003.
M. Alexandrian, and M. Schwalm, Comparison of ethanol and gasoline as automotive fuels. ASME Papers 92-WA/DE-15;1992.
C.W. Wu, R.H. Chen, J.Y. Pu, and T.H. Lin, "The influence of air-fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels", Atmos. Environ.. vol. 38(40), pp. 7093-7100, 2004.
T. Topgul, H.S. Yucesu, and C. Cınar, "The experimental investigation of the effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on engine performance in different compression ratios on a spark ignition engine", Eighth International Combustion Symposium.Ankara, Turkey September, 2004, pp. 8-9.
M.B. Celik, "Experimental determination of suitable ethanol-gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine", Appl. Therm. Eng.. vol. 28, pp. 396-404, 2008
A.K. Agarwal, "Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines", Pror. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 233-271, 2007.
R.W. Rice, A.K. Sanyal, A.C. Eirod, and R.M. Bata, "Exhaust gas emissions of butanol, ethanol, and methanol-gasoline blends", J. Eng. Gas Turbine. Power, vol. 113, pp. 377-381, 1991.
W.D. Hsieh, R.H. Chen, T. Wu, and T. Lin, "Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels", Atmos. Environ.. vol. 36(3), pp. 403-410, 2002.
H. Bayraktar, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of using gasoline-ethanol blends in spark ignition engines", Renew. Energy, vol. 30, pp. 1733-1747, 2005.
H.S. Yucesu, T. Topgul, C. Cinar, and M. Okur, "Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions in different compression ratios", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 26, pp. 2272-2278, 2006.
B.Q. He, J.X. Wang, J.M. Hao, X.G. Yan, and J.H. Xiao, "A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels", Atmos. Environ., vol. 37, pp. 949-957, 2003.
A. Abdel-Rahman, and M. Osman, "Experimental investigation on varying the compression ratio of SI engine working under different ethanol-gasoline fuel blends", Energy Res, vol. 21, pp. 31-40, 1997.
R. Cataluna, R. Silva, E. Menezes, and R.B. Ivanov, "Specific consumption of liquid biofuels in gasoline fuelled engines", Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 3362-3368, 2008.
T. Topgül, H. Yücesu, C. Çinar, and A. Koca, "The effects of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends and ignition timing on engine performance and exhaust emissions", Renew. Energy, vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2534-2542, 2006.
D.A. Guerrieri, P.J. Caffrey, and V. Rao, Investigation into the Vehicle Exhaust Emissions of High Percentage Ethanol Blends., Intl. Congress Exposition, pp. 85-95. 1995
A.M. Pourkhesalian, A.H. Shamekhi, and F. Salimi, "Alternative fuel and gasoline in an SI engine: A comparative study of performance and emissions characteristics", Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 1056-1063, 2010.
C.C. Melo, M.G. Bastos, R.T. Machado, P.C.R. Belchior, and P.P. Pereira, "Thermodynamic modeling of compression, combustion and expansion processes of gasoline, ethanol and natural gas with experimental validation on a flexible fuel engine", SAE World Congress, pp. 24-35 2007
A.N. Ozsezen, and M. Canakci, "Performance and combustion characteristics of alcohol-gasoline blends at wide-open throttle", Energy, vol. 36, pp. 2747-2752, 2011.
G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, T. Tavakoli, D.R. Buttsworth, T.F. Yusaf, and M. Faizollahnejad, "Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network", Appl. Energy, vol. 86, pp. 630-639, 2009.
M. Eyidogan, A.N. Ozsezen, M. Canakci, and A. Turkcan, "Impact of alcohol-gasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an SI engine", Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 2713-2720, 2010.
B. Cahyono, and R. Abu-Bakar, "Effect of ethanol addition in the combustion process during warm-UPS and half open throttle on port-injection gasoline engine", American J. Engineer Appl. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 66-69, 2011.
J.S. MacDonald, Evaluation of the hydrogen supplemented fuel concept with an experimental multi-cylinder engine. SAE technical paper 760101, pp. 76-101, 1976.
N. Jeuland, X. Montagne, and X. Gautrot, "Potentiality of ethanol as a fuel for dedicated engine", Oil Gas Sci. Technol., vol. 59, pp. 559-570, 2004.
C. Park, Y. Choi, C. Kim, G. Lim, and Y. Moriyoshi, "Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using ethanol and ethanol-reformed gas", Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 2118-2125, 2010.
C.L. Song, W.M. Zhang, Y.Q. Pei, G.L. Fan, and G.P. Xu, "Comparative effects of MTBE and ethanol additions into gasoline on exhaust emissions", Atmosphere Environ, vol. 40, pp. 1957-1970, 2005.
L. Shenghua, E.R. Clemente, H. Tiegang, and W. Yanjv, "Study of spark ignition engine fueled with methanol/gasoline fuel blends", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 27, pp. 1904-1910, 2007.
M.B. Çelik, B. Özdalyan, and F. Alkan, "The use of pure methanol as fuel at high compression ratio in a single cylinder gasoline engine", Fuel. vol. 90(4), pp. 1591-1598, 2011
A. Elfasakhany, "Investigation on performance and emissions characteristics of an internal combustion engine fuelled with petroleum gasoline and a hybrid methanol-gasoline", Int. J. Eng. Tech, vol. 13, pp. 24-43, 2013.
A. Elfasakhany, "“Performance and emissions of spark-ignition engine using ethanol-methanol-gasoline, n-butanol-iso-butanol-gasoline and iso-butanol-ethanol-gasoline blends: A comparative study”, Eng. Sci. Tech", JESTECH, vol. 19, pp. 2053-2059, 2016.
A. Elfasakhany, and A.F. Mahrous, "Performance and emissions assessment of n-butanol-methanol-gasoline blends as a fuel in spark-ignition engines", Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 55, pp. 3015-3024, 2016.
B. Deng, J. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Feng, J. Fu, J. Liu, K. Li, and X. Liu, "The challenges and strategies of butanol application in conventional engines: The sensitivity study of ignition and valve timing", Appl. Energy, vol. 108, pp. 248-260, 2013.
H.S. Farkade, and A.P. Pathre, "Experimental investigation of methanol, ethanol and butanol blends with gasoline on SI engine", Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng., vol. 2, pp. 205-215, 2012.
C. Tornatore, L. Marchitto, G. Valentino, F.E. Corcione, and S.S. Merola, "Optical diagnostics of the combustion process in a PFI SI boosted engine fueled with butanol/gasoline blend", Energy, vol. 45, pp. 277-287, 2012.
G. Xiaolei, H. Zuohua, C. Jian, G. Jing, W. Xuesong, and C. Lee, "Emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fuelled with gasoline-nbutanol blends in combination with EGR", Fuel, vol. 93, pp. 611-617, 2012.
J. Yang, X. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Han, and Z. Zhong, Test investigations of gasoline engine fueled with butanol-gasoline blends. SAE 2009-01-1891, 2009
J. Yang, Y. Wang, and R. Feng, The performance analysis of an engine fueled with butanol-gasoline blend. SAE 2011-01-1191, 2011
M. Pechout, M. Mazac, and M. Vojtisek-Lom, Effect of higher content n-butanol blends on combustion, exhaust emissions and catalyst performance of an unmodified SI vehicle engine. SAE 2012-01-1594, 2012
Y. Yacoub, R. Bata, and M. Gautam, "The performance and emission characteristics of C1-C5 alcohol-gasoline blends with matched oxygen content in a single cylinder spark ignition engine", J. Power Energy, vol. 212, pp. 363-379, 1998.
B.R. Wigg, A study on the emissions of butanol using a spark ignition engine and their reduction using electrostatically assisted injection. M.Sc. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, 2011.
J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.. McGraw-Hill. New York, NY. ISBN 978-0070286375,, 1988
R. Feng, J. Yang, D. Zhang, B. Deng, J. Fu, J. Liu, and X. Liu, "Experimental study on SI engine fuelled with butanol-gasoline blend and H2O addition", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 74, pp. 192-200, 2013.
G. Broustail, P. Seers, F. Halter, G. Moréac, and C. Mounaim-Rousselle, "Experimental determination of laminar burning velocity for butanol and ethanol isooctane blends", Fuel, vol. 90, pp. 1-6, 2011.
T. Venugopal, and A. Ramesh, "Effective utilization of butanol along with gasoline in a spark ignition engine through a dual injection system", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 59, pp. 550-558, 2013.
T. Venugopal, and A. Ramesh, "Experimental studies on the effect of injection timing in a SI engine using dual injection of n-butanol and gasoline in the intake port", Fuel, vol. 115, pp. 295-305, 2014.
A. Elfasakhany, "Experimental study on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 88, pp. 277-283, 2014.
A. Elfasakhany, "Investigations on performance and pollutant emissions of spark-ignition engines fueled with n-butanol-, iso-butanol-, ethanol-, methanol-, and acetone-gasoline blends: a comparative study", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 71, pp. 404-413, 2017.
A. Elfasakhany, "Exhaust emissions and performance of ternary iso-butanol-bio-methanol-gasoline and n-butanol-bio-ethanol-gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engines: Assessment and comparison", Energy, vol. 158, pp. 830-844, 2018.
N. Mittal, R.L. Athony, R. Bansal, and C.R. Kumar, "Study of performance and emission characteristics of a partially coated LHR SI engine blended with n-butanol and gasoline", Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 52, pp. 285-293, 2013.
F.N. Alasfour, "Butanol-a single-cylinder engine study: availability analysis", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 17, pp. 537-549, 1997.
F.N. Alasfour, "Nox emission from a spark ignition engine using 30% iso-butanol-gasoline blend: Part 2 - ignition timing", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 18, pp. 609-618, 1998.
F.N. Alasfour, "Nox emission from a spark ignition engine using 30% iso-butanol-gasoline blend: Part 1 - Preheating inlet air", Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 18, pp. 245-256, 1998.
F.N. Alasfour, "Effect of using 30% iso-butanol-gasoline blend on hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignition engine", Energy Sources, vol. 21, pp. 379-394, 1999.
A. Elfasakhany, "Experimental investigation on SI engine using gasoline and a hybrid iso-butanol/gasoline fuel", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 95, pp. 398-405, 2015.
A. Elfasakhany, "Experimental study of dual n-butanol and iso-butanol additives on spark-ignition engine performance and emissions", Fuel, vol. 163, pp. 166-174, 2016.
A. Elfasakhany, "Engine performance evaluation and pollutant emissions analysis using ternary bio-ethanol-iso-butanol-gasoline blends in gasoline engines", J. Clean. Prod., vol. 139, pp. 1057-1067, 2016.
A. Irimescu, "Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol", Appl. Energy, vol. 96, pp. 477-483, 2012.
R. Bata, A. Elrod, and T. Lewandowski, Evaluation of butanol as an alternative fuel., Energy-Sources Technology Conferences and Exhibition: Houston, Texas, 1989.
A. Kelkar, L. Hooks, and C. Knofzynski, "Comparative study of methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol as motor fuels, either pure or blended with gasoline", Proceedings of the Twenty-third Intersociety Eng. Conference Denver, Colorado 1988
Y.C. Chang, W.J. Lee, S.L. Lin, and L.C. Wang, "Green energy: Water-containing acetone-butanol-ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines", Appl. Energy, vol. 109, pp. 182-191, 2013.
Y.C. Chang, W.J. Lee, T.S. Wu, C.Y. Wu, and S.J. Chen, "Use of water containing acetone-butanol-ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel", Energy, vol. 64, pp. 678-687, 2014.
S.L. Lin, W.J. Lee, C.F. Lee, and S.J. Chen, "Energy savings and emission reduction of nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by adding water-containing acetone and neat soybean oil to a diesel-fueled engine generator", Energy Fuels, vol. 24, pp. 4522-4533, 2010.
A. Elfasakhany, "Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone-gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine”, Eng. Sci. Tech", JESTECH, vol. 19, pp. 1224-1232, 2016.
A.C. Hansen, Q. Zhang, and P.W.L. Lyne, "Ethanol-diesel fuel blends - a review", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 96, pp. 277-285, 2005.
J. Chao, Y. Mingfa, L. Haifeng, F.L. Chiafon, and J. Jing, "Progress in the production and application of n-butanol as a biofuel", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, pp. 4080-4106, 2011.
S. Szwaja, and J.D. Naber, "Combustion of n-butanol in a spark-ignition IC engine", Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 1573-1582, 2010.
N. Qureshi, B.C. Saha, M.A. Cotta, and V. Singh, "An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 65, pp. 456-462, 2013.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 03 January, 2019
Page: [27 - 33]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2405463103666190103143423

Article Metrics

PDF: 32
PRC: 2