Properties of Oils From Plantain Pseudostem Biotransformed Using Crude Local Enzyme Sources: A Comparison of Poultry Feed Oil

Author(s): Amadi P. Uchenna*, Ogunka-Nnoka U. Charity, Abbey Bene

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture

Volume 10 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Objectives: Plantain Pseudostem (PPS) wastes were biotransformed by applying Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) using excised snail digestive juice and yeast slurry, and their oil properties compared with oils from commercially sold poultry feeds (PF). Patents suggesting the inclusion of certain additives (US20090226558A1), spices (US5741508A), cysteamine (US4711897A), and dextrin (US6326051B1) in animal diets are regarded as expensive, thus, requiring cheaper and readily available sources of growth.

Methods: The analysis of their free radical scavenging potentials was carried by spectrophotometry, while fatty acids, volatile fatty acids, essentials oils, and phytosterols were determined by chromatography.

Results: After biotransformation, the melting point, specific gravity, acid, and peroxide values of the oils from SSF-PPS were significantly lower than those of PF, and showed elevations of C6:0- C18:1(trans-9) fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, γ-Linolenic, α-linolenic, behenic, and lignoceric acids. Camphene, β-phelandrene, eugenol, β-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, guaiol, tetradecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid levels decreased when PPS was biotransformed. Lactic (1575.75 mg/100g), acetic (1234.26 mg/100g), propionic (845.74 mg/100g), and n-butyric (68.56 mg/100g) acids were the predominant Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) in the SSF-PPS oils, which were higher than those found in the PF oil while PF oil contained higher campesterol, Stigmasterol, and 5-avesmasterol. The 2,2- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging potentials of PPS oil at high concentrations after biotransformation were equivalent to the standards and the PF oil.

Conclusion: This study has shown that biotransformation involving snail digestive juice and yeasts extensively improves the oil qualities of agricultural residues sufficient enough for poultry nutrition.

Keywords: Biotransformation, fermentation, plantain pseudostem, phytosterols, essential oils, poultry feed.

Mohiuddin AKM, Manas K, et al. Usefulness of banana (Musa paradisiaca) wastes in the manufacturing of bioproducts: A review, the agriculturists 2014; 12(1): 148-58.
Vazza AL. Livestock feed from potato waste. US5354818A. 1994.
Amadi PU, Ifeanacho MO, Agomuo EN. The effects of different heating periods and exclusion of some fermentation conditionns on bioethanol production from plantain pseudo-stem waste using the digestive juice of Archachatina marginata, garlic and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biofuels 2017; 9(4): 531-9.
Kessler AM, Lubisco DS, Vieira MM, Ribeiro AML, Penz Jr AM. Fatty-acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets. Bra J Poult Sci 2009; 11(1): 31-8.
Kashyap MC, Agrawal YC, Sarkar BC, Singh BPN. Response surface analysis of enzyme aided extraction of soyabean for enhanced oil recovery. J Food Sci Technol 1997; 34: 386-90.
Sharma R, Kaushal BB, Sharma PC. Development of cost effective commercial method for enhancing yield and quality of olive oil. J Food Sci Technol 2007; 44(2): 133-7.
Hammond JRM. Brewer’s yeasts. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS,, Eds. The Yeast Yeast Technology. 1993; 5: p. Academic Press, London. 620.
Waldroup PW, Waldroup AL. Fatty acid effect on carcass: the influence of various blends of dietary fats added to corn-soybean meal based diets on the fatty acid composition of broilers. Intl J Poult Sci 2005; 4(3): 123-32.
Gita C. Nutrition and metabolism in poultry: Role of lipids in early diet. J Anim Sci Technol 2015; 6: 28.
Crespo N, Esteve-Garcia E. Dietary linseed oil produces lower abdominal fat deposition but higher de novo fatty acid synthesis in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 2002; 81: 1555-62.
Dänicke S, Jeroch H, Böttcher W, Simon O. Interactions between dietary fat type and enzyme supplementation in broiler diets with high pentosan contents: Effects on precaecal and total tract digestibility of fatty acids, metabolizability of gross energy, digesta viscosity and weights of small intestine. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2000; 84: 279-94.
Dijkstra J. Production and absorption of volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Livest Prod Sci 1994; 39: 61-9.
Gopal K, Asmita N. Use of essential oils in poultry nutrition: A new approach. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2014; 1(4): 156-62.
Michalina A, Danuta S. Use of essential oils in broiler chicken production - a review. Ann Anim Sci 2017; 17(2): 317-35.
Amadi PU, Ifeanacho MO. Impact of changes in fermentation time, volume of yeast, and mass of plantain pseudo-stem substrate on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation potentials of African land snail slime and yeast. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2016; 14(2): 289-97.
Agomuo E, Amadi P, Ogunka-Nnoka C, Amadi B, Ifeanacho M, Njoku U. Chemical composition of duranta repens leaf and seed oils. OCL Lipids 2017; 24(6): 1-8.
A.O.A.C. Official methods of analysis. 2000.17th Ed.Washington DC: Association of analytical chemists..
A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC.Horwitz W, Ed. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington, DC, USA 2006.
Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 2003; 133: 2812-9.
Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, Nakamura T. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J Agric Food Chem 1992; 40: 945-8.
Sutharsingh DCR, Kavimani S, Jayakar B, Uvarani M, Thangathirupathi A. Quantitative phytochemical estimation and antioxidant studies on aerial parts of Naravelia zeylanica. Int J Pharm Stud Res 2011; 2(2): 52-6.
Fontana L, Cummings NE, Arriola A, Sebastian I, Neuman JC, Kasza I. Decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids improves metabolic health. Cell Reports 2016; 16: 520-30.
Alam NN, Jahan B, Rafiquzzaman M. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J 2013; 21(2): 143-52.
Ruberto G, Barrata MT. Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model system. Food Chem 2000; 69: 167-74.
Musa M, Sulaiman AU, Bello I, Itumoh JE, Bello K, Bello AM, et al. Physicochemical properties of some commercial groundnut oil products sold in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria. J Biol Sci Bioconserv 2012; 4: 38-45.
Warra AA, Wawata IG, Gunu SY, Aujara KM. Extraction and physicochemical analysis of some selected northern Nigerian industrial oils. Arch Appl Sci Res 2011; 3(4): 536-41.
Duduyemi O, Adebanjo SA, Oluoti K. Extraction and determination of physico- chemical properties of watermelon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus L) for relevant uses. Int J Sci Technol Res 2013; 2(8): 66-8.
Aletor O, Agbede JO, Adeyeye SA, Aletor VA. Chemical and physio-chemical characterization of the flours and oils from whole and rejected cashew nuts cultivated in southwest Nigeria. Pak J Nutr 2007; 6(1): 89-93.
Akubugwo IE, Chinyere GC, Ugbogu AE. Comparative studies on oils from some common plant seeds in Nigeria. Pak J Nutr 2008; 7(4): 570-3.
Olaofe O, Ogungbenle HN, Akhadelor BE, et al. Physicochemical and fatty acids composition of oils from some legume seeds. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2012; 1(3): 355-63.
Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A. Effect of heating on the chemical composition and physico - chemical properties of Arachis hypogea (groundnut) seed flour and oil. Pak J Nutr 2010; 9(8): 751-4.
Kim K, Son J, Kim H, Yun J. Fermented vegetable oil and composition including same. US20140194513A1 . 2014.
Waldroup W, England JA. Composition of commercial samples of poultry oil. J Appl Poult Res 1995; 4: 127-30.
Bruggeman G, Molly K. Medium chain fatty acids applicable as antimicrobial agents. EP1294371B2 . 2010.
Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, Qiao M, Sterling KG. A comparison of eight grades of fat as broiler feed ingredients. Poult Sci 2002; 81: 382-90.
Dyer JM, Sten S, Allan GG, Anders SC. Harnessing plant biomass for biofuels and biomaterials High-value oils from plants. Plant J 2008; 54: 640-55.
Agomuo EN, Amadi PU. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of oils from selected bagasse, agricultural residues, and fodders. J Am Coll Nutr 2018. [Epub ahead of print].
Ethel NJ, David RS, Dongming X, Zhixiong X, Quinn QZ. Production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in oleaginous yeasts. US8313911B2 . 2012.
Nangle MR, Gibson TM, Cotter MA, Cameron NE. Effects of eugenol on nerve and vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Planta Med 2006; 72(6): 494-500.
Wang G, Li X, Huang F, et al. Antitumor effect of beta-elemene in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is mediated via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Cell Mol Life Sci 2005; 62(7-8): 881-93.
Shulgin AT, Sargent T, Naranjo C. The Chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines. Psychopharmacol Bull 1967; 4(3): 13.
Zock PL, de Vries JH, Katan MB. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1994; 14: 567-75.
Maria LM, Dustin H, Sylvie B, Christopher JC, Paul DC, Benoit F, et al. Health benefits of fermented foods: Microbiota and beyond. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2017; 44: 94-102.
Kahlert S, Junnikkala S, Renner L, Hynönen U, Hartig R, Nossol C, et al. Physiological concentration of exogenous lactate reduces antimycin a triggered oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 in vitro. PLoS One 2016; 11(4): e0153135.
Saleem PG, Ramzaan R, Khattak F, Akhtar R. Effects of acetic acid supplementation in broiler chickens orally challenged with Salmonella. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2016; 40: 434-43.
Al-Lahham SH, Peppelenbosch MP, Roelofsen H, Vonk RJ, Venema K. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta 2010; 1801(11): 1175-83.
Becerra-Tomás N, Guasch-Ferré M, Quilez J, Merino J, Ferré R, Díaz-López A, et al. Effect of functional bread rich in potassium, γ-aminobutyric acid and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on blood pressure, glucose metabolism and endothelial function: A double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94(46): e1807.
Li B, Ahmad H, Yang X, Wang JJ, Wang T. Effects of phytosterols on growth performance and fat metabolism in broilers. Pak J Zool 2015; 47(1): 111-8.
Toba M, Uchiyama S, Ohta R, Shimizu S, Sakamoto S. Antioxidation food product, antioxidation preparation and antioxidation method. US6884415B2 . 2005.
Sun JH, Seung YL, Young-Chan K, Inwook C, Geun-Bae K. Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem 2014; 160: 346-56.
Amadi PU, Ogunka Nnoka C, Abbey BW. Biotransformation of plantain pseudostem fibres using local enzyme sources; analysis of their potential as commercial poultry feed. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 2019; 37(8): 224-32.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 17 December, 2018
Page: [140 - 151]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2212798410666181217141311

Article Metrics

PDF: 23
PRC: 1