Unlocking the Potential of HK2 in Cancer Metabolism and Therapeutics

Author(s): Sara N. Garcia, Rita C. Guedes, M. Matilde Marques*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 41 , 2019

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Abstract:

Glycolysis is a tightly regulated process in which several enzymes, such as Hexokinases (HKs), play crucial roles. Cancer cells are characterized by specific expression levels of several isoenzymes in different metabolic pathways and these features offer possibilities for therapeutic interventions. Overexpression of HKs (mostly of the HK2 isoform) have been consistently reported in numerous types of cancer. Moreover, deletion of HK2 has been shown to decrease cancer cell proliferation without explicit side effects in animal models, which suggests that targeting HK2 is a viable strategy for cancer therapy. HK2 inhibition causes a substantial decrease of glycolysis that affects multiple pathways of central metabolism and also destabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane, ultimately enhancing cell death. Although glycolysis inhibition has met limited success, partly due to low selectivity for specific isoforms and excessive side effects of the reported HK inhibitors, there is ample ground for progress.

The current review is focused on HK2 inhibition, envisaging the development of potent and selective anticancer agents. The information on function, expression, and activity of HKs is presented, along with their structures, known inhibitors, and reported effects of HK2 ablation/inhibition. The structural features of the different isozymes are discussed, aiming to stimulate a more rational approach to the design of selective HK2 inhibitors with appropriate drug-like properties. Particular attention is dedicated to a structural and sequence comparison of the structurally similar HK1 and HK2 isoforms, aiming to unveil differences that could be explored therapeutically. Finally, several additional catalytic- and non-catalytic roles on different pathways and diseases, recently attributed to HK2, are reviewed and their implications briefly discussed.

Keywords: Hexokinases (HKs), cancer metabolism, cancer therapy, glycolysis, drug development, catalytic- and non-catalytic roles.

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VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 41
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867326666181213092652
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