Evaluation of Salivary Lipid Peroxidation End Product Level in Dental Caries

Author(s): Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel*, Seyede Sareh Hendi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders

Volume 20 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Background: Tissue destruction can be measured by the level of lipid peroxidation (LP) end products. Since free radicals are very reactive with low survival time, the level of free radicals and oxidative stress activity are measured indirectly by tissue damage end product assessment, i.e. Malondialdehyde (MDA) that is a final end product of LP.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary MDA level as an indicator of oxidative stress; in caries-active and caries-free students.

Methods: A total of 100 male and female students, 15-17 years of age, participated in this casecontrol study. Five mL of whole saliva was obtained. Salivary MDA level was measured spectrophotometrically. Statistical comparisons were performed with Student’s t-test, using SPSS 13.

Results: Salivary MDA level was significantly higher in the caries-active group compared to the control caries-free group. MDA was also slightly lower in males.

Conclusion: Higher MDA level might indicate caries-induced oxidative stress. In this study there was a relationship between salivary MDA level and dental caries. Therefore oxidative stress suppression might prevent caries initiation and progression.

Keywords: Dental caries, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, saliva, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species.

Saral, Y.; Coskun, B.K.; Ozturk, P.; Karatas, F.; Ayar, A. Assessment of salivary and serum antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2005, 206(4), 305-312.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.206.305] [PMID: 15997201]
Battino, M.; Ferreiro, M.S.; Gallardo, I.; Newman, H.N.; Bullon, P. The antioxidant capacity of saliva. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2002, 29(3), 189-194.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290301x.x] [PMID: 11940135]
Güven, M.; Oztürk, B.; Sayal, A.; Ozet, A. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in the blood of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Clin. Biochem., 2000, 33(3), 209-212.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-9120(00)00062-X] [PMID: 10913520]
Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M.; Valachovicová, M.; Pauková, V.; Dusinská, M. Effects of diet and age on oxidative damage products in healthy subjects. Physiol. Res., 2008, 57(4), 647-651.
[PMID: 17705666]
Morrissey, P.; O’Brien, N. Dietary antioxidants in health and disease. Int. Dairy J., 1998, 8, 463-472.
Riboli, E.; Norat, T. Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 78(3)(Suppl.), 559S-569S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.559S] [PMID: 12936950]
Salmon, T.B.; Evert, B.A.; Song, B.; Doetsch, P.W. Biological consequences of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res., 2004, 32(12), 3712-3723.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkh696] [PMID: 15254273]
Canakci, C.F.; Cicek, Y.; Yildirim, A.; Sezer, U.; Canakci, V. Increased levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde and its relationship with antioxidant enzymes in saliva of periodontitis patients. Eur. J. Dent., 2009, 3(2), 100-106.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1697415] [PMID: 19421389]
Guentsch, A.; Preshaw, P.M.; Bremer-Streck, S.; Klinger, G.; Glockmann, E.; Sigusch, B.W. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in saliva of periodontitis patients: effect of smoking and periodontal treatment. Clin. Oral Investig., 2008, 12(4), 345-352.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-008-0202-z] [PMID: 18509684]
Panjamurthy, K.; Manoharan, S.; Ramachandran, C.R. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in patients with periodontitis. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett., 2005, 10(2), 255-264.
[PMID: 16010291]
Eisenberg, E.; Shtahl, S.; Geller, R.; Reznick, A.Z.; Sharf, O.; Ravbinovich, M.; Erenreich, A.; Nagler, R.M. Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain, 2008, 138(1), 226-232.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.04.019] [PMID: 18539395]
Khalili, J.; Biloklytska, H.F. Salivary malondialdehyde levels in clinically healthy and periodontal diseased individuals. Oral Dis., 2008, 14(8), 754-760.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2008.01464.x] [PMID: 18665859]
Rai, B.; Kharb, S.; Jain, R.; Anand, S.C. Salivary lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in various dental diseases. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 2006, 1(2), 100-101.
Ahmadi-Motamayel, F.; Goodarzi, M.T.; Hendi, S.S.; Kasraei, S.; Moghimbeigi, A. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries. Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal, 2013, 18(4), e553-e556.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/medoral.18762] [PMID: 23524431]
Subramanyam, D.; Gurunathan, D.; Gaayathri, R.; Vishnu Priya, V. Comparative evaluation of salivary malondialdehyde levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in early childhood caries. Eur. J. Dent., 2018, 12(1), 67-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_266_17] [PMID: 29657527]
Ahmadi-Motamayel, F.; Goodarzi, M.T.; Mahdavinezhad, A.; Jamshidi, Z.; Darvishi, M. Salivary and serum antioxidant and oxidative stress markers in dental caries. Caries Res., 2018, 52(6), 565-569.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488213] [PMID: 29698949]
Navazesh, M. Methods for collecting saliva. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1993, 694, 72-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18343.x] [PMID: 8215087]
Rodriguez-Martinez, M.A.; Ruiz-Torres, A. Homeostasis between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy human aging. Mech. Ageing Dev., 1992, 66(2), 213-222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-6374(92)90137-3] [PMID: 1365846]
Mc Donald, R.; Avery, D.; Dean, J. Dentistry for the child and adolescent, 8th ed; Louis Mosby, 2004.
Lima, D. P.; Diniz, D. G.; Moimaz, S. A.; Sumida, D. H.; Okamoto, A. C. Saliva: reflection of the body. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2010, 14(3), e184-8.
Selwitz, R.H.; Ismail, A.I.; Pitts, N.B. Dental caries. Lancet, 2007, 369(9555), 51-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2] [PMID: 17208642]
Barroso, A.S.; Quissell, D.O.; Colepicolo, P. Modulation of SOD activity in rat submandibular glands. Arch. Oral Biol., 2003, 48(2), 133-139.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9969(02)00169-3] [PMID: 12642232]
Ozmeric, N. Advances in periodontal disease markers. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2004, 343(1-2), 1-16.
Hodosy, J.; Celec, P. Daytime of sampling, tooth-brushing and ascorbic acid influence salivary thiobarbituric acid reacting substances--a potential clinical marker of gingival status. Dis. Markers, 2005, 21(4), 203-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2005/209643] [PMID: 16403956]
Sculley, D.V.; Langley-Evans, S.C. Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 2003, 105(2), 167-172.
Tsai, C.C.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, S.L.; Ho, Y.P.; Ho, K.Y.; Wu, Y.M.; Hung, C.C. Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. J. Periodontal Res., 2005, 40(5), 378-384.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0765.2005.00818.x] [PMID: 16105090]
Vlková, B.; Celec, P. Does Enterococcus faecalis contribute to salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances? In Vivo, 2009, 23(2), 343-345.
[PMID: 19414424]
Sanbe, T.; Tomofuji, T.; Ekuni, D.; Azuma, T.; Irie, K.; Tamaki, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Morita, M. Vitamin C intake inhibits serum lipid peroxidation and osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Arch. Oral Biol., 2009, 54(3), 235-240.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.11.001] [PMID: 19110235]
Garg, N.; Singh, R.; Dixit, J.; Jain, A.; Tewari, V. Levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidants in smokers and nonsmokers. J. Periodontal Res., 2006, 41(5), 405-410.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0765.2006.00889.x] [PMID: 16953817]
Oztürk, L.K.; Furuncuoğlu, H.; Atala, M.H.; Uluköylü, O.; Akyüz, S.; Yarat, A. Association between dental-oral health in young adults and salivary glutathione, lipid peroxidation and sialic acid levels and carbonic anhydrase activity. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2008, 41(11), 956-959.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2008005000048] [PMID: 18982196]
Serafini, M. The role of antioxidants in disease prevention. Medicine (Baltimore), 2006, 34(12), 533-535.
Akalin, F.A.; Baltacioğlu, E.; Alver, A.; Karabulut, E. Lipid peroxidation levels and total oxidant status in serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2007, 34(7), 558-565.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01091.x] [PMID: 17555410]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 14 February, 2020
Page: [65 - 68]
Pages: 4
DOI: 10.2174/1871526519666181123182120
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 13