Background: The metal oxide (M-O) ionic crystals such as NiO, PbO, CaO and MgO can be
synthesized via mechanical alloying method apart from the solution techniques whose structures and
spectroscopic properties are studied in recent patents.
Objectives: This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of NiO, PbO, CaO and MgO using
mechanical ball milling method.
Method: The ball miller, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron
microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, UV-Visible spectrometer, LCR controller were
used to explain the synthesis, structural, morphological, optical and impedance spectroscopic properties,
Results and Conclusion: The diffraction study expressed the structure of nanomaterials. The surface
morphology was examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The Fourier transform
infrared spectrum revealed the presence of metal oxide bonds in the whole diatomic structures.
The ultra violet-visible spectra established the optical band gap energy. The dielectric constant and loss
were also found. There are number of patents on these materials related to the applications in biomedical
devices, magnets, microwave devices, etc. The impedance spectral studies attributed the grain conduction
mechanism to NiO, PbO, CaO, and MgO samples.