Tuberculosis - Present Medication and Therapeutic Prospects

Author(s): Anna Jelińska, Marianna Zając, Adrianna Dadej, Szymon Tomczak, Małgorzata Geszke-Moritz, Izabela Muszalska-Kolos*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 4 , 2020

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Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has been present in the history of human civilization since time immemorial and has caused more deaths than any other infectious disease. It is still considered one of the ten most common epidemiologic causes of death in the world. As a transmissible disease, it is initiated by rod-shaped (bacillus) mycobacteria. The management of tuberculosis became possible owing to several discoveries beginning in 1882 with the isolation of the TB bacillus by Robert Koch. The diagnosis of TB was enabled by finding a staining method for TB bacteria identification (1883). It was soon realized that a large-scale policy for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis was necessary, which resulted in the foundation of International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (1902). An antituberculosis vaccine was developed in 1921 and has been in therapeutic use since then. TB treatment regimens have changed over the decades and the latest recommendations are known as Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS, WHO 1993).

Methods: A search of bibliographic databases was performed for peer-reviewed research literature. A focused review question and inclusion criteria were applied. Standard tools were used to assess the quality of retrieved papers.

Results: A total of 112 papers were included comprising original publications and reviews. The paper overviews anti-TB drugs according to their mechanism of action. The chemical structure, metabolism and unwanted effects of such drugs have been discussed. The most recent treatment regimens and new drugs, including those in clinical trials, are also presented.

Conclusion: Despite a 22% decrease in the tuberculosis fatality rate observed between 2000 and 2015, the disease remains one of the ten prime causes of death worldwide. Increasing bacterial resistance and expensive, prolonged therapies are the main reasons for efforts to find effective drugs or antituberculosis regimens, especially to cure multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Keywords: Tuberculosis infection, action mechanisms of drugs, structure, medication guidelines, tuberculosis treatment, vaccine.

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