Pharmaceutical Mixtures: Still A Concern for Human and Environmental Health

Author(s): Georgeta M. Simu, Jeanne Atchana, Codruta M. Soica, Dorina E. Coricovac, Sebastian C. Simu, Cristina A. Dehelean*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 1 , 2020

  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Abstract:

In the present work, recent data on the sources, occurrence and fate of human-use pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment have been reviewed. Since PhACs and their metabolites are usually present as mixtures in the environment at very low concentrations, a particular emphasis was placed onto the PhACs mixtures, as well as on their short-term and long-term effects against human and environmental health. Moreover, a general overview of the main conventional as well as of the latest trends in wastewaters decontaminant technologies was outlined. Advantages and disadvantages of current processes were also pointed out. It appears that numerous gaps still exist in the current knowledge related to this field of interest, and further studies should be conducted at the global level in order to ensure a more efficient monitorisation of the presence of PhACs and their metabolites into the aquatic environment and to develop new mitigation measures.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, ecotoxicological effects, pharmaceutical mixtures, decontaminant technologies, advanced oxidation processes, nanomaterials.

[1]
Fent, K.; Weston, A.A.; Caminada, D. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals. Aquat. Toxicol., 2006, 76(2), 122-159.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.09.009] [PMID: 16257063]
[2]
Kümmerer, K. The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use--present knowledge and future challenges. J. Environ. Manage., 2009, 90(8), 2354-2366.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.023] [PMID: 19261375]
[3]
Jones, O.A.H.; Voulvoulis, N.; Lester, J.N. Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment a review. Environ. Technol., 2001, 22(12), 1383-1394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2001.11090873] [PMID: 11873874]
[4]
Jones, O.A.H.; Voulvoulis, N.; Lester, J.N. Human pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment processes. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 35, 401-427.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643380590956966]
[5]
Monteiro, S.; Boxall, A.A. Occurrence and fate of human pharmaceuticals in the environment In: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Springer, 2010; pp. 53-154 202 .
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1157-5_2]
[6]
Silva, B.; Costa, F.; Neves, I.C.; Tavares, T. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants in wastewater in springer. Briefs in Green Chemistry for Sustainability; Springer International Publishing, 2015.
[7]
aus der Beek, T.; Weber, F.A.; Bergmann, A.; Hickmann, S.; Ebert, I.; Hein, A.; Küster, A. Pharmaceuticals in the environment--Global occurrences and perspectives. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2016, 35(4), 823-835.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3339] [PMID: 26666847]
[8]
Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Galletti, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D. Hospital effluent: investigation of the concentrations and distribution of pharmaceuticals and environmental risk assessment. Sci. Total Environ., 2012, 430, 109-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.055] [PMID: 22634557]
[9]
Arnold, K.E.; Brown, A.R.; Ankley, G.T.; Sumpter, J.P. Medicating the environment: assessing risks of pharmaceuticals to wildlife and ecosystems. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 2014, 369(1656), 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0569] [PMID: 25405959]
[10]
Lyons, G. Pharmaceuticals in the environment: a growing threat to our tap water and wildlife. A Chemtrust Report., 2014.
[11]
Calisto, V.; Esteves, V.I. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals in the environment. Chemosphere, 2009, 77(10), 1257-1274.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.09.021] [PMID: 19815251]
[12]
Christen, V.; Hickmann, S.; Rechenberg, B.; Fent, K. Highly active human pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems: A concept for their identification based on their mode of action. Aquat. Toxicol., 2010, 96(3), 167-181.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.11.021] [PMID: 20053463]
[13]
Furuhagen, S.; Fuchs, A.; Lundström Belleza, E.; Breitholtz, M.; Gorokhova, E. Are pharmaceuticals with evolutionary conserved molecular drug targets more potent to cause toxic effects in non-target organisms? PLoS One, 2014, 9(8) e105028
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105028 ] [PMID: 25140792]
[14]
Verlicchi, P.; Galletti, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barcelo, D. Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: An overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options. J. Hydrol. (Amst.), 2010, 389, 416-428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.005]
[15]
Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.; Noroozi, A. Removal of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewaters using nanomaterials: a review. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. Res., 2016, 3(1), 1-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/: 10.22036/abcr.2016.12655]
[16]
Diaz-Cruz, S.; Barcelo, D. Occurrence and analysis of selected pharmaceuticals and metabolites as contaminants present in wastewaters, sludge and sediments. Handb Environ Chem., 2004, 5, 227-260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b97180]
[17]
Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant. Sci. Total Environ., 2004, 329(1-3), 99-113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.03.015] [PMID: 15262161]
[18]
Aitken, M. Outlook for global medicines through 2021: balancing cost and value 2016.
[19]
Morley, N.J. Environmental risk and toxicology of human and veterinary waste pharmaceutical exposure to wild aquatic host-parasite relationships. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2009, 27(2), 161-175.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2008.11.004] [PMID: 21783935]
[20]
Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Meric, S.; Nikolaou, A. Pharmaceutical residues in environmental waters and wastewater: current state of knowledge and future research. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2011, 399(1), 251-275.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4300-9] [PMID: 21063687]
[21]
Hughes, S.R.; Kay, P.; Brown, L.E. Global synthesis and critical evaluation of pharmaceutical data sets collected from river systems. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47(2), 661-677.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es3030148] [PMID: 23227929]
[22]
Besse, J.P.; Latour, J.F.; Garric, J. Anticancer drugs in surface waters: what can we say about the occurrence and environmental significance of cytotoxic, cytostatic and endocrine therapy drugs? Environ. Int., 2012, 39(1), 73-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.10.002] [PMID: 22208745]
[23]
Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P. Tetracycline antibiotics in the environment: a review. Environ. Chem. Lett., 2013, 11, 209-227.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0404-8]
[24]
Bu, Q.; Wang, B.; Huang, J.; Deng, S.; Yu, G. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review. J. Hazard. Mater., 2013, 262, 189-211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.08.040 PMID: 24036145]
[25]
Falås, P.; Andersen, H.R.; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, J. Occurrence and reduction of pharmaceuticals in the water phase at Swedish wastewater treatment plants. Water Sci. Technol., 2012, 66(4), 783-791.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.243 PMID: 22766867]
[26]
Besse, P.; Kausch Barreto, C.; Garric, J. Exposure assessment of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in the aquatic environment: application to the french situation and preliminary prioritization. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess., 2008, 14(4), 665-695.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807030802235078]
[27]
Klančar, A.; Trontelj, J.; Kristl, A.; Justin, M.Z.; Roškar, R. Levels of pharmaceuticals in Slovene municipal and hospital wastewaters: a preliminary study. Arh. Hig. Rada Toksikol., 2016, 67(2), 106-115.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/aiht-2016-67-2727] [PMID: 27331298]
[28]
Miraji, H.; Othman, O.C.; Ngassapa, F.N.; Mureithi, E.W. Research trends in emerging contaminants on the aquatic environments of Tanzania. Scientifica, 2016, 6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3769690]
[29]
Moldovan, Z. Occurrences of pharmaceutical and personal care products as micropollutants in rivers from Romania. Chemosphere, 2006, 64(11), 1808-1817.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.02.003] [PMID: 16540150]
[30]
González, S.; López-Roldán, R.; Cortina, J.L. Presence and biological effects of emerging contaminants in Llobregat River basin: a review. Environ. Pollut., 2012, 161, 83-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.10.002] [PMID: 22230072]
[31]
Klecka, G.; Persoon, C.; Currie, R. Chemicals of emerging concern in the great lakes basin: an analysis of environmental exposures In: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology; Whitacre, D.M. Springer: New York, USA, 2010; Vol: 207, pp. 1-93.
[32]
Silva, L.J.G.; Pereira, A.M.P.T.; Meisel, L.M.; Lino, C.M.; Pena, A. A one-year follow-up analysis of antidepressants in Portuguese wastewaters: occurrence and fate, seasonal influence, and risk assessment. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 490, 279-287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.131] [PMID: 24858225]
[33]
Lolić, A.; Paíga, P.; Santos, L.H.; Ramos, S.; Correia, M.; Delerue-Matos, C. Assessment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals in seawaters of North of Portugal: occurrence and environmental risk. Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 508, 240-250.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.097] [PMID: 25481252]
[34]
Miège, C.; Choubert, J.M.; Ribeiro, L.; Eusèbe, M.; Coquery, M. Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants--conception of a database and first results. Environ. Pollut., 2009, 157(5), 1721-1726.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.11.045] [PMID: 19201071]
[35]
Li, W.C. Occurrence, sources, and fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and soil. Environ. Pollut., 2014, 187, 193-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.01.015] [PMID: 24521932]
[36]
Zrnčić, M.; Gros, M.; Babić, S.; Kaštelan-Macan, M.; Barcelo, D.; Petrović, M. Analysis of anthelmintics in surface water by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Chemosphere, 2014, 99, 224-232.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.091] [PMID: 24289978]
[37]
Petrović, M.; Hernando, M.D.; Díaz-Cruz, M.S.; Barceló, D. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in environmental samples: a review. J. Chromatogr. A, 2005, 1067(1-2), 1-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.10.110] [PMID: 15844508]
[38]
Buchberger, W.W. Current approaches to trace analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218(4), 603-618.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.040] [PMID: 21067760]
[39]
Kemper, N. Veterinary antibiotics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Ecol. Indic., 2008, 8(1), 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.06.002]
[40]
Aguayo, S.; Torre, A.D.L.; Carballo, M.; Cabrera, R.; Mendez, J. A review of the most relevant residues of pharmaceuticals products of human use in effluents and sludges from waste water treatment plants. Toxicol. Lett., 2010, 196, S65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.03.248]
[41]
Celle-Jeanton, H.; Schemberg, D.; Mohammed, N.; Huneau, F.; Bertrand, G.; Lavastre, V.; Le Coustumer, P. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface water: reliability of PECs compared to MECs. Environ. Int., 2014, 73, 10-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.06.015] [PMID: 25080069]
[42]
Cardoso, O.; Porcher, J.M.; Sanchez, W. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge. Chemosphere, 2014, 115, 20-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.004] [PMID: 24602347]
[43]
Fick, J.; Söderström, H.; Lindberg, R.H.; Phan, C.; Tysklind, M.; Larsson, D.G. Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2009, 28(12), 2522-2527.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/09-073.1] [PMID: 19449981]
[44]
Orias, F.; Perrodin, Y. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review. Sci. Total Environ., 2013, 454- 455, 250-276.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.064] [PMID: 23545489]
[45]
Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Vasquez, M.I.; Kümmerer, K. Transformation products of pharmaceuticals in surface waters and wastewater formed during photolysis and advanced oxidation processes - degradation, elucidation of byproducts and assessment of their biological potency. Chemosphere, 2011, 85(5), 693-709.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.082] [PMID: 21835425]
[46]
Brausch, J.M.; Connors, K.A.; Brooks, B.W.; Rand, G.M. Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a review of recent toxicological studies and considerations for toxicity testing. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2012, 218, 1-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3137-4_1] [PMID: 22488604]
[47]
Chen, M.; Ohman, K.; Metcalfe, C.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Amatya, P.L.; Wilson, J. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment effluents and in the water supply system of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Water Qual. Res. J. Canada, 2006, 41(4), 351-364.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wqrj.2006.039]
[48]
Saussereau, E.; Lacroix, C.; Guerbet, M.; Cellier, D.; Spiroux, J.; Goullé, J.P. Determination of levels of current drugs in hospital and urban wastewater. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2013, 91(2), 171-176.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1030-7] [PMID: 23807682]
[49]
Zuccato, E.; Castiglioni, S. Illicit drugs in the environment. Philos. Trans.- Royal Soc., Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 2009, 367(1904), 3965-3978.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2009.0107] [PMID: 19736230]
[50]
Bottoni, P.; Caroli, S.; Barra Caracciolo, A. Pharmaceuticals as priority water contaminants. Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 2010, 92(3), 549-565.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02772241003614320]
[51]
Montforts, M.H.M.M.; Kalf, D.F.; van Vlaardingen, P.L.A.; Linders, J.B.H.J. The exposure assessment for veterinary medicinal products. Sci. Total Environ., 1999, 225(1-2), 119-133.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00338-6] [PMID: 10028709]
[52]
Ebele, A.J.; Abdallah, M.A.E.; Harrad, S. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment. Emer. Contam, 2017, 3(1), 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emcon.2016.12.004]
[53]
Hirsch, R.; Ternes, T.; Haberer, K.; Kratz, K.L. Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Sci. Total Environ., 1999, 225(1-2), 109-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00337-4] [PMID: 10028708]
[54]
Damstra, T.; Barlow, S.; Bergman, A.; Kavlock, R.; Van Der Kraak, G. Global assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors; WHO, 2002.
[55]
Boxall, A.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Tolls, J. Are veterinary medicines causing environmental risks? Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003, 37(15), 286A-294A.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es032519b] [PMID: 12966963]
[56]
Isidori, M.; Nardelli, A.; Pascarella, L.; Rubino, M.; Parrella, A. Toxic and genotoxic impact of fibrates and their photoproducts on non-target organisms. Environ. Int., 2007, 33(5), 635-641.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.01.006] [PMID: 17320957]
[57]
Wohde, M.; Berkner, S.; Junker, T.; Konradi, S.; Schwarz, L.; Düring, R.A. Occurrence and transformation of veterinary pharmaceuticals and biocides in manure: a literature review. Environ. Sci. Eur., 2016, 28(1), 23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-016-0091-8] [PMID: 27761355]
[58]
Enick, O.V.; Moore, M.M. Assessing the assessments: pharmaceuticals in the environment. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 2007, 27(8), 707-729.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2007.01.001]
[59]
Santos, L.H.M.L.M.; Araújo, A.N.; Fachini, A.; Pena, A.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Montenegro, M.C.B.S.M. Ecotoxicological aspects related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. J. Hazard. Mater., 2010, 175(1-3), 45-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.100] [PMID: 19954887]
[60]
Rand-Weaver, M.; Margiotta-Casaluci, L.; Patel, A.; Panter, G.H.; Owen, S.F.; Sumpter, J.P. The read-across hypothesis and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47(20), 11384-11395.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es402065a] [PMID: 24006913]
[61]
Heys, K.A.; Shore, R.F.; Martin, F.L. Risk assessment of environmental mixture effect. RSC Advances, 2016, 6, 47844-47857.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6RA05406D]
[62]
Geiger, E.; Hornek-Gausterer, R.; Saçan, M.T. Single and mixture toxicity of pharmaceuticals and chlorophenols to freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2016, 129, 189-198.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.03.032] [PMID: 27045919]
[63]
Cleuvers, M. Mixture toxicity of the anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2004, 59(3), 309-315.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-6513(03)00141-6] [PMID: 15388270]
[64]
Rodea-Palomares, I.; González-Pleiter, M.; Martín-Betancor, K.; Rosal, R.; Fernández-Piñas, F. Fernández-pinas; Roberto Rosal, R. Additivity and interactions in ecotoxicity of pollutant mixtures: some patterns, conclusions, and open questions. Toxics, 2015, 3(4), 342-369.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics3040342] [PMID: 29051468]
[65]
Pomati, F.; Orlandi, C.; Clerici, M.; Luciani, F.; Zuccato, E. Effects and interactions in an environmentally relevant mixture of pharmaceuticals. Toxicol. Sci., 2008, 102(1), 129-137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm291] [PMID: 18048368]
[66]
Stancova, V.; Plhalova, L.; Bartoskova, M.; Zivna, D.; Prokes, M.; Marsalek, P.; Blahova, J.; Skoric, M.; Svobodova, Z. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (TINCA TINCA). BioMed Res. Int., 2014, 2014(8) 253468
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1155/2014/253468]
[67]
Cleuvers, M. Aquatic ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals including the assessment of combination effects. Toxicol. Lett., 2003, 142(3), 185-194.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00068-7] [PMID: 12691712]
[68]
Oaks, J.L.; Gilbert, M.; Virani, M.Z.; Watson, R.T.; Meteyer, C.U.; Rideout, B.A.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Ahmed, S.; Chaudhry, M.J.; Arshad, M.; Mahmood, S.; Ali, A.; Khan, A.A. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature, 2004, 427(6975), 630-633.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02317] [PMID: 14745453]
[69]
Söffker, M.; Tyler, C.R. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish--a critical review on effects and possible consequences. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 2012, 42(8), 653-668.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2012.692114] [PMID: 22697575]
[70]
Sárria, M.P.; Santos, M.M.; Castro, L.F.; Vieira, N.M.; Monteiro, N.M. Estrogenic chemical effects are independent from the degree of sex role reversal in pipefish. J. Hazard. Mater., 2013, 263(Pt 2), 746-753.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.043] [PMID: 24220198]
[71]
Zenker, A.; Cicero, M.R.; Prestinaci, F.; Bottoni, P.; Carere, M. Bioaccumulation andbiomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment. J. Environ. Manage., 2014, 133, 378-387.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.017] [PMID: 24419205]
[72]
Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--II) untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ., 2008, 402(2-3), 201-216.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.021] [PMID: 18433838]
[73]
Baker, D.R.; Barron, L.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A: chemical analysis and drug use estimates. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 487, 629-641.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.107] [PMID: 24377678]
[74]
Baker, D.R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. Multi-residue analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218(12), 1620-1631.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.01.060] [PMID: 21334631]
[75]
Kümmerer, K. Pharmaceuticals in the environment; Springer-verlag 2nd ed, 2004.
[76]
Schwab, B.W.; Hayes, E.P.; Fiori, J.M.; Mastrocco, F.J.; Roden, N.M.; Cragin, D.; Meyerhoff, R.D.; D’Aco, V.J.; Anderson, P.D. Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: a human health risk assessment. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol, 2005, 42( 3), 296-312.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2005.05.005] [PMID: 15979221]
[77]
Webb, S.; Ternes, T.; Gibert, M.; Olejniczak, K. Indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water. Toxicol. Lett., 2003, 142(3), 157-167.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00071-7] [PMID: 12691710]
[78]
Triebskorn, R.; Casper, H.; Scheil, V.; Schwaiger, J. Ultrastructural effects of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, metoprolol, diclofenac) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2007, 387(4), 1405-1416.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-1033-x] [PMID: 17216161]
[79]
Foster, H.R.; Burton, G.A.; Basu, N.; Werner, E.E. Chronic exposure to fluoxetine (Prozac) causes developmental delays in Rana pipiens larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2010, 29(12), 2845-2850.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.345] [PMID: 20836066]
[80]
de Oliveira, L.L.; Antunes, S.C.; Gonçalves, F.; Rocha, O.; Nunes, B. Acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of four pharmaceuticals drugs on cladoceran Daphnia magna. Drug Chem. Toxicol., 2016, 39(1), 13-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2015.1029048] [PMID: 25864724]
[81]
Ebert, I.; Bachmann, J.; Kühnen, U.; Küster, A.; Kussatz, C.; Maletzki, D.; Schlüter, C. Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2011, 30(12), 2786-2792.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.678] [PMID: 21919043]
[82]
Kidd, K.A.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Mills, K.H.; Palace, V.P.; Evans, R.E.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Flick, R.W. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2007, 104(21), 8897-8901.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609568104] [PMID: 17517636]
[83]
Michelini, L.A.; Reichel, R.B.; Werner, W.C.; Ghisi, R.A.; Thiele-Bruhn, S. Sulfadiazine uptake and effects on Salix fragilis L. and Zea mays L. plants. Water Air Soil Pollut., 2012, 223(8), 5243-5257.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1275-5]
[84]
Gros, M.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D. Development of a multi-residue analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for screening and trace level determination of pharmaceuticals in surface and wastewaters. Talanta, 2006, 70(4), 678-690.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2006.05.024] [PMID: 18970827]
[85]
Gros, M.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Barceló, D. Fast and comprehensive multi-residue analysis of a broad range of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and some of their metabolites in surface and treated waters by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 2012, 1248, 104-121.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.084] [PMID: 22704668]
[86]
Paíga, P.; Santos, L.H.; Amorim, C.G.; Araújo, A.N.; Montenegro, M.C.S.M.; Pena, A.; Delerue-Matos, C. Pilot monitoring study of ibuprofen in surface waters of north of Portugal. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2013, 20(4), 2410-2420.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1128-1] [PMID: 22932847]
[87]
Rabiet, M.; Togola, A.; Brissaud, F.; Seidel, J.L.; Budzinski, H.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F. Consequences of treated water recycling as regards pharmaceuticals and drugs in surface and ground waters of a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40(17), 5282-5288.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es060528p] [PMID: 16999100]
[88]
Zupanc, M.; Kosjek, T.; Petkovšek, M.; Dular, M.; Kompare, B.; Širok, B.; Blažeka, Ž.; Heath, E. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment. Ultrason. Sonochem., 2013, 20(4), 1104-1112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.12.003] [PMID: 23352585]
[89]
Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environ. Pollut., 2012, 163, 287-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.034] [PMID: 22306910]
[90]
Cizmas, L.; Sharma, V.K.; Gray, C.M.; McDonald, T.J. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waters: occurrence, toxicity, and risk. Environ. Chem. Lett., 2015, 13(4), 381-394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10311-015-0524-4] [PMID: 28592954]
[91]
Michael, I.; Rizzo, L.; McArdell, C.S.; Manaia, C.M.; Merlin, C.; Schwartz, T.; Dagot, C.; Fatta-Kassinos, D. Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for the release of antibiotics in the environment: a review. Water Res., 2013, 47(3), 957-995.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.027] [PMID: 23266388]
[92]
Sharma, V.K.; Anquandah, G.A.K.; Yngard, R.A.; Kim, H.; Fekete, J.; Bouzek, K.; Ray, A.K.; Golovko, D. Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol-A in the aquatic environment: a review on occurrence, fate, and treatment. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 2009, 44(423), 442.
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/10934520902719704] [PMID: 19241257]
[93]
Taylor, D.; Senac, T. Human pharmaceutical products in the environment - the “problem” in perspective. Chemosphere, 2014, 115, 95-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.011] [PMID: 24525259]
[94]
Kuzmanovi, M.; Ginebreda, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D. Risk assessment based prioritization of 200 organic micropollutants in 4 Iberian rivers. Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 503-504, 289-299.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.056]
[95]
Petrović, M.; Škrbić, B.; Živančev, J.; Ferrando-Climent, L.; Barcelo, D. Determination of 81 pharmaceutical drugs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap in different types of water in Serbia. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 468-469, 415-428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.079] [PMID: 24055661]
[96]
Qin, Q.; Chen, X.; Zhuang, J. The fate and impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in agricultural soils irrigated with reclaimed water. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 45, 1379-1408.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2014.955628]
[97]
Kaczala, F.; Blum, S.E. The occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment: a review. Curr. Anal. Chem., 2016, 12(3), 169-182.
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2174/1573411012666151009193108] [PMID: 28579931]
[98]
Kreuzinger, N.; Clara, M.; Strenn, B.; Vogel, B. Investigation on the behaviour of selected pharmaceuticals in the groundwater after infiltration of treated wastewater. Water Sci. Technol., 2004, 50(2), 221-228.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0130] [PMID: 15344795]
[99]
Boxall, A.B.A.; Keller, V.D.J.; Straub, J.O.; Monteiro, S.C.; Fussell, R.; Williams, R.J. Exploiting monitoring data in environmental exposure modelling and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Environ. Int., 2014, 73, 176-185.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.018] [PMID: 25127044]
[100]
Daneshvar, A.; Svanfelt, J.; Kronberg, L.; Weyhenmeyer, G.A. Neglected sources of pharmaceuticals in river water--footprints of a Reggae festival. J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14(2), 596-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1039/c1em10551e] [PMID: 22193362]
[101]
Kümmerer, K. Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sources--a review. Chemosphere, 2001, 45(6-7), 957-969.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00144-8] [PMID: 11695619]
[102]
Petrie, B.; Barden, R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Res., 2015, 72, 3-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.08.053] [PMID: 25267363]
[103]
Jux, U.; Baginski, R.M.; Arnold, H-G.; Krönke, M.; Seng, P.N. Detection of pharmaceutical contaminations of river, pond, and tap water from Cologne (Germany) and surroundings. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 2002, 205(5), 393-398.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00166] [PMID: 12173539]
[104]
Golet, E.M.; Alder, A.C.; Giger, W. Environmental exposure and risk assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in wastewater and river water of the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36(17), 3645-3651.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0256212] [PMID: 12322733]
[105]
Golet, E.M.; Xifra, I.; Siegrist, H.; Alder, A.C.; Giger, W. Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003, 37(15), 3243-3249.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0264448] [PMID: 12966965]
[106]
Boyd, G.R.; Reemtsma, H.; Grimm, D.A.; Mitra, S. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada. Sci. Total Environ., 2003, 311(1-3), 135-149.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00138-4] [PMID: 12826389]
[107]
Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K. Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California. Sci. Total Environ., 2011, 409(18), 3409-3417.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.053] [PMID: 21684580]
[108]
Loos, R.; Carvalho, R.; António, D.C.; Comero, S.; Locoro, G.; Tavazzi, S.; Paracchini, B.; Ghiani, M.; Lettieri, T.; Blaha, L.; Jarosova, B.; Voorspoels, S.; Servaes, K.; Haglund, P.; Fick, J.; Lindberg, R.H.; Schwesig, D.; Gawlik, B.M. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res., 2013, 47(17), 6475-6487.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.08.024] [PMID: 24091184]
[109]
Ismail, A.; Hazizan, A.F.; Zulkifli, S.Z.; Arizono, K. Determination of 17ß-estradiol concentration in aquatic environment of peninsular malaysia using the elisa technique. Life Sci. J., 2014, 11, 673-679.
[110]
Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.H.; Huang, Y.; Wang, H. Comprehensive evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in typical highly urbanized regions across China. Environ. Pollut., 2015, 204, 223-232.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.04.021] [PMID: 25982548]
[111]
Morasch, B.; Bonvin, F.; Reiser, H.; Grandjean, D.; de Alencastro, L.F.; Perazzolo, C.; Chèvre, N.; Kohn, T. Occurrence and fate of micropollutants in the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Part II: micropollutant removal between wastewater and raw drinking water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2010, 29(8), 1658-1668.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.222] [PMID: 20821617]
[112]
Perazzolo, C.; Morasch, B.; Kohn, T.; Magnet, A.; Thonney, D.; Chèvre, N. Occurrence and fate of micropollutants in the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Part I: priority list for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2010, 29(8), 1649-1657.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.221] [PMID: 20821616]
[113]
Kim, S.D.; Cho, J.; Kim, I.S.; Vanderford, B.J.; Snyder, S.A. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in South Korean surface, drinking, and waste waters. Water Res., 2007, 41(5), 1013-1021.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.034] [PMID: 16934312]
[114]
Loraine, G.A.; Pettigrove, M.E. Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in southern California. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40(3), 687-695.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es051380x] [PMID: 16509304]
[115]
Oliveira, T.S.; Murphy, M.; Mendola, N.; Wong, V.; Carlson, D.; Waring, L. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS. Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 518-519, 459-478.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.104] [PMID: 25777952]
[116]
Qiao, T.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Au, D.W.T. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water in southern China. J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13(11), 3097-3103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1em10318k] [PMID: 21987209]
[117]
Ginebreda, A.; Muñoz, I.; de Alda, M.L.; Brix, R.; López-Doval, J.; Barceló, D. Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in rivers: relationships between hazard indexes and aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity indexes in the Llobregat River (NE Spain). Environ. Int., 2010, 36(2), 153-162.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2009.10.003] [PMID: 19931909]
[118]
Zuccato, E.; Castiglioni, S.; Fanelli, R.; Reitano, G.; Bagnati, R.; Chiabrando, C.; Pomati, F.; Rossetti, C.; Calamari, D. Pharmaceuticals in the environment in Italy: causes, occurrence, effects and control. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2006, 13(1), 15-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.01.004] [PMID: 16417127]
[119]
Schwarzenbach, R.P.; Escher, B.I.; Fenner, K.; Hofstetter, T.B.; Johnson, C.A.; von Gunten, U.; Wehrli, B. The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science, 2006, 313(5790), 1072-1077.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1127291] [PMID: 16931750]
[120]
Weigel, S.; Berger, U.; Jensen, E.; Kallenborn, R.; Thoresen, H.; Hühnerfuss, H. Determination of selected pharmaceuticals and caffeine in sewage and seawater from Tromsø/Norway with emphasis on ibuprofen and its metabolites. Chemosphere, 2004, 56(6), 583-592.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.015] [PMID: 15212901]
[121]
Weigel, S.; Kuhlmann, J.; Hühnerfuss, H. Drugs and personal care products as ubiquitous pollutants: occurrence and distribution of clofibric acid, caffeine and DEET in the North Sea. Sci. Total Environ., 2002, 295(1-3), 131-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00064-5] [PMID: 12186282]
[122]
Rodríguez-Navas, C.; Björklund, E.; Bak, S.A.; Hansen, M.; Krogh, K.A.; Maya, F.; Forteza, R.; Cerdà, V. Pollution pathways of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment on the island of Mallorca, Spain. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2013, 65(1), 56-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-013-9880-x] [PMID: 23440447]
[123]
Togola, A.; Budzinski, H. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in aqueous samples. J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, 1177(1), 150-158.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.10.105] [PMID: 18054788]
[124]
Loos, R.; Tavazzi, S.; Paracchini, B.; Canuti, E.; Weissteiner, C. Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2013, 405(18), 5875-5885.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-6944-8] [PMID: 23657443]
[125]
Vidal-Dorsch, D.E.; Bay, S.M.; Maruya, K.; Snyder, S.A.; Trenholm, R.A.; Vanderford, B.J. Contaminants of emerging concern in municipal wastewater effluents and marine receiving water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2012, 31(12), 2674-2682.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.2004] [PMID: 22987561]
[126]
Fang, T.H.; Nan, F.H.; Chin, T.S.; Feng, H.M. The occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in the effluents of a major sewage treatment plant in Northern Taiwan and the receiving coastal waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2012, 64(7), 1435-1444.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.04.008] [PMID: 22608946]
[127]
Wu, J.; Qian, X.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, L. Study on the matrix effect in the determination of selected pharmaceutical residues in seawater by solid-phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 2010, 1217(9), 1471-1475.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.12.074] [PMID: 20074738]
[128]
Wille, K.; Noppe, H.; Verheyden, K.; Vanden Bussche, J.; De Wulf, E.; Van Caeter, P.; Janssen, C.R.; De Brabander, H.F.; Vanhaecke, L. Validation and application of an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 13 pharmaceuticals in seawater. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2010, 397(5), 1797-1808.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3702-z] [PMID: 20437229]
[129]
Nebot, C.; Gibb, S.W.; Boyd, K.G. Quantification of human pharmaceuticals in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2007, 598(1), 87-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.07.029] [PMID: 17693311]
[130]
Evgenidou, E.N.; Konstantinou, I.K.; Lambropoulou, D.A. Occurrence and removal of transformation products of PPCPs and illicit drugs in wastewaters: a review. Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 505, 905-926.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.021] [PMID: 25461093]
[131]
Alder, A.; Bruchest, A.; Carballa, M.; Clara, M.; Joss, A.; Loffler, D.; Mcardell, C.; Miksck, K.; Omil, F.; Tukhanen, T.; Ternes, T. Consumption and occurrence in: Human pharmaceuticals hormones and fragrances, the challenge of micropollutants in urban water management; Ternes, T; Joss, A., Ed.; IWA publishing: London, 2006.
[132]
Richardson, M.L.; Bowron, J.M. The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic environment. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1985, 37(1), 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1985.tb04922.x] [PMID: 2858520]
[133]
Daughton, C.G.; Ternes, T.A. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ. Health Perspect., 1999, 107(Suppl. 6), 907-938.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.99107s6907] [PMID: 10592150]
[134]
Gros, M.; Petrović, M.; Ginebreda, A.; Barceló, D. Removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment and environmental risk assessment using hazard indexes. Environ. Int., 2010, 36(1), 15-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2009.09.002] [PMID: 19819553]
[135]
Azuma, T.; Ishiuchi, H.; Inoyama, T.; Teranishi, Y.; Yamaoka, M.; Sato, T.; Mino, Y. Occurrence and fate of selected anticancer, antimicrobial, and psychotropic pharmaceuticals in an urban river in a subcatchment of the Yodo River basin, Japan. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2015, 22(23), 18676-18686.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5013-6] [PMID: 26178832]
[136]
Fernández, C.; González-Doncel, M.; Pro, J.; Carbonell, G.; Tarazona, J.V. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface waters of the Henares-Jarama-Tajo River system (Madrid, Spain) and a potential risk characterization. Sci. Total Environ., 2010, 408(3), 543-551.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.009] [PMID: 19889447]
[137]
Moreno-González, R.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Gros, M.; Pérez-Cánovas, E.; Barceló, D.; León, V.M. Input of pharmaceuticals through coastal surface watercourses into a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain): sources and seasonal variations. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 490, 59-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.097] [PMID: 24840281]
[138]
Esteban, S.; Valcárcel, Y.; Catalá, M.; Castromil, M.G. Psychoactive pharmaceutical residues in the watersheds of Galicia (Spain). Gac. Sanit., 2012, 26(5), 457-459.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2012.01.018] [PMID: 22464026]
[139]
Oppel, J.; Broll, G.; Löffler, D.; Meller, M.; Römbke, J.; Ternes, T. Leaching behaviour of pharmaceuticals in soil-testing-systems: a part of an environmental risk assessment for groundwater protection. Sci. Total Environ., 2004, 328(1-3), 265-273.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.02.004] [PMID: 15207589]
[140]
Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.; Teiser, B.; Andersen, H.R. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany: an option to remove pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances. Chemosphere, 2007, 66(5), 894-904.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.06.035] [PMID: 16872661]
[141]
La Guardia, M.J.; Hale, R.C.; Harvey, E.P.; Bush, E.O.; Mainor, T.M.; Gaylor, M.O. Organic contaminants of emerging concern in land-applied sewage sludge (biosolids). J. Residuals Sci. Technol., 2004, 1, 111-122.
[142]
Pedersen, J.A.; Soliman, M.; Suffet, I.H.M. Human pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care product ingredients in runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with treated wastewater. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53(5), 1625-1632.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf049228m] [PMID: 15740050]
[143]
Topp, E.; Monteiro, S.C.; Beck, A.; Coelho, B.B.; Boxall, A.B.A.; Duenk, P.W.; Kleywegt, S.; Lapen, D.R.; Payne, M.; Sabourin, L.; Li, H.; Metcalfe, C.D. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field. Sci. Total Environ., 2008, 396(1), 52-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.011] [PMID: 18377955]
[144]
Williams, R.T. Human health and pharmaceuticals in the environment - an introduction In: Human pharmaceuticals: assessing the impacts on aquatic ecosystems; Williams, R.T., Ed.; Setac presS: Pensacola, Fl, 2005; pp. 1-46.
[145]
Ahel, M.; Jelicic, I. Phenazone analgesics in soil and groundwater below a municipal solid waste landfill. American chemical society, symposium series, 2001, 791, 100-115.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/BK-2001-0791.CH006]
[146]
Larsson, D.G.J.; de Pedro, C.; Paxeus, N. Effluent from drug manufactures contains extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. J. Hazard. Mater., 2007, 148(3), 751-755.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.008] [PMID: 17706342]
[147]
Al Qarni, H.; Collier, P.; O’Keeffe, J.; Akunna, J. Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2016, 23(13), 13003-13014.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6389-7] [PMID: 26996911]
[148]
Azuma, T.; Arima, N.; Tsukada, A.; Hirami, S.; Matsuoka, R.; Moriwake, R.; Ishiuchi, H.; Inoyama, T.; Teranishi, Y.; Yamaoka, M.; Mino, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Masada, M. Detection of pharmaceuticals and phytochemicals together with their metabolites in hospital effluents in Japan, and their contribution to sewage treatment plant influents. Sci. Total Environ., 2016, 548-549, 189-197.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.157] [PMID: 26802347]
[149]
Yuan, S.; Jiang, X.; Xia, X.; Zhang, H.; Zheng, S. Detection, occurrence and fate of 22 psychiatric pharmaceuticals in psychiatric hospital and municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. Chemosphere, 2013, 90(10), 2520-2525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.089] [PMID: 23228908]
[150]
de Almeida, C.A.A.; Oliveira, M.S.; Mallmann, C.A.; Martins, A.F. Determination of the psychoactive drugs carbamazepine and diazepam in hospital effluent and identification of their metabolites. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2015, 22(21), 17192-17201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4948-y] [PMID: 26139407]
[151]
Ternes, T.A.; Meisenheimer, M.; McDowell, D.; Sacher, F.; Brauch, H.J.; Haist-Gulde, B.; Preuss, G.; Wilme, U.; Zulei-Seibert, N. Removal of pharmaceuticals during drinking water treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36(17), 3855-3863.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es015757k] [PMID: 12322761]
[152]
Tominaga, F.K.; Boiani, N.F.; Granieri, R.I.; Borrely, S.I. Ecotoxicological study of pharmaceutical mixture in water solution and its treatability. International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC., 2015.
[153]
Stumpf, M.; Ternes, T.A.; Wilken, R.D.; Rodrigues, S.V.; Baumann, W. Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sci. Total Environ., 1999, 225(1-2), 135-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00339-8] [PMID: 10028710]
[154]
Andreozzi, R.; Raffaele, M.; Nicklas, P. Pharmaceuticals in STP effluents and their solar photodegradation in aquatic environment. Chemosphere, 2003, 50(10), 1319-1330.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00769-5] [PMID: 12586163]
[155]
Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Buxton, H.T. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36(6), 1202-1211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es011055j] [PMID: 11944670]
[156]
Metcalfe, C.D.; Koenig, B.G.; Bennie, D.T.; Servos, M.; Ternes, T.A.; Hirsch, R. Occurrence of neutral and acidic drugs in the effluents of Canadian sewage treatment plants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2003, 22(12), 2872-2880.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/02-469] [PMID: 14713026]
[157]
Borrely, S.I.; Caminada, S.M.L.; Ponezi, A.N.; Santos, D.R.; Silva, V.H.O. Contaminaçao das águas por resíduos de medicamentos: enfase ao cloridrato de fluoxetina. Mundo Saude, 2012, 4(36), 556-563.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15343/0104-7809.2012364556563]
[158]
Braga, O.; Smythe, G.A.; Schäfer, A.I.; Feitz, A.J. Steroid estrogens in ocean sediments. Chemosphere, 2005, 61(6), 827-833.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.053] [PMID: 15967481]
[159]
Thomas, K.V.; Hilton, M. Targeted monitoring programme for pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. UK environment agency R&D technical report p6-012/6, 2003.
[160]
Ternes, T.; Hirsch, R.; Mueller, J.; Haberer, K. Methods for the determination of neutral drugs as well as betablockers and alpha2-sympathomimetics in aqueous matrices using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 1998, 362(3), 329-340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002160051083]
[161]
Fisher, P.M.J.; Borland, R. Gauging the pharmaceutical burden on Sydney’s environment: a preventative response. J. Clean. Prod., 2003, 11, 315-320.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-6526(02)00048-3]
[162]
Cabello, F.C. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 8(7), 1137-1144.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01054.x] [PMID: 16817922]
[163]
Bound, J.P.; Voulvoulis, N. Household disposal of pharmaceuticals as a pathway for aquatic contamination in the United Kingdom. Environ. Health Perspect., 2005, 113(12), 1705-1711.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8315] [PMID: 16330351]
[164]
Seehusen, D.A.; Edwards, J. Patient practices and beliefs concerning disposal of medications. J. Am. Board Fam. Med., 2006, 19(6), 542-547.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.19.6.542] [PMID: 17090787]
[165]
Musson, S.E.; Townsend, T.G. Pharmaceutical compound content of municipal solid waste. J. Hazard. Mater., 2009, 162(2-3), 730-735.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.089] [PMID: 18599201]
[166]
Barbosa, M.O.; Moreira, N.F.F.; Ribeiro, A.R.; Pereira, M.F.R.; Silva, A.M.T. Occurrence and removal of organic micropollutants: An overview of the watch list of EU Decision 2015/495. Water Res., 2016, 94, 257-279.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.047] [PMID: 26967909]
[167]
Celiz, M.D.; Tso, J.; Aga, D.S. Pharmaceutical metabolites in the environment: analytical challenges and ecological risks. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2009, 28(12), 2473-2484.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/09-173.1] [PMID: 19663539]
[168]
Castiglioni, S.; Bagnati, R.; Calamari, D.; Fanelli, R.; Zuccato, E. A multiresidue analytical method using solid-phase extraction and high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure pharmaceuticals of different therapeutic classes in urban wastewaters. J. Chromatogr. A, 2005, 1092(2), 206-215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.012] [PMID: 16199227]
[169]
Robles-Molina, J.; Gilbert-López, B.; García-Reyes, J.F.; Molina-Díaz, A. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 479-480, 247-257.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.121] [PMID: 24561930]
[170]
Deng, A.; Himmelsbach, M.; Zhu, Q.Z.; Frey, S.; Sengl, M.; Buchberger, W.; Niessner, R.; Knopp, D. Residue analysis of the pharmaceutical diclofenac in different water types using ELISA and GC-MS. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003, 37(15), 3422-3429.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0341945] [PMID: 12966990]
[171]
Gros, M.; Petrović, M.; Barceló, D. Multi-residue analytical methods using LC-tandem MS for the determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples: a review. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2006, 386(4), 941-952.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0586-z] [PMID: 16830112]
[172]
Fatta, D.; Achilleos, A.; Nikolaou, A.; Meriç, S. Analytical methods for tracing pharmaceutical residues in water and wastewater. Trends Analyt. Chem., 2007, 26, 515-533.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2007.02.001]
[173]
Brooks, B.W.; Huggett, D.B.; Boxall, A.B.A. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products: research needs for the next decade. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2009, 28(12), 2469-2472.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/09-325.1] [PMID: 19908931]
[174]
Knacker, T.; Metcalfe, C. Introduction to the special issue on environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag., 2010, 6(Suppl. 1), 511-513.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.93] [PMID: 20821716]
[175]
Rosi-Marshall, E.J.; Roye, T.V. Pharmaceutical compounds and ecosystem function: an emerging research challenge for aquatic ecologists. Ecosystems (N. Y.), 2012, 15(6), 867-880.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-012-9553-z]
[176]
Huerta, B.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Barceló, D. Pharmaceuticals in biota in the aquatic environment: analytical methods and environmental implications. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2012, 404(9), 2611-2624.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6144-y] [PMID: 22678760]
[177]
Jakimska, A.; Śliwka-Kaszyńska, M.; Reszczyńska, J.; Namieśnik, J.; Kot-Wasik, A. Elucidation of transformation pathway of ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and furosemide in surface water and their occurrence in the aqueous environment using UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2014, 406(15), 3667-3680.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7614-1] [PMID: 24452745]
[178]
Collado, N.; Buttiglieri, G.; Ferrando-Climent, L.; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S.; Barceló, D.; Comas, J.; Rodriguez-Roda, I. Removal of ibuprofen and its transformation products: experimental and simulation studies. Sci. Total Environ., 2012, 433, 296-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.060] [PMID: 22796728]
[179]
Boreen, A.L.; Arnold, W.A.; Mcneill, K. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a review. Aquat. Sci., 2003, 65, 320-341.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00027-003-0672-7]
[180]
Klementova, S.; Kahoun, D.; Doubkova, L.; Frejlachova, K.; Dusakova, M.; Zlamal, M. Catalytic photodegradation of pharmaceuticals - homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, 16(1), 67-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6PP00164E] [PMID: 27910986]
[181]
Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2002, 42(3), 263-271.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-001-0017-2] [PMID: 11910453]
[182]
Halling-Sørensen, B.; Nors Nielsen, S.; Lanzky, P.F.; Ingerslev, F.; Holten Lützhøft, H.C.; Jørgensen, S.E. Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment--a review. Chemosphere, 1998, 36(2), 357-393.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00354-8] [PMID: 9569937]
[183]
Fent, K. Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms, pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects and risk; 3rd; KÜMMERER, K., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, 2008, pp. 175-203.
[184]
Crane, M.; Watts, C.; Boucard, T. Chronic aquatic environmental risks from exposure to human pharmaceuticals. Sci. Total Environ., 2006, 367(1), 23-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.04.010] [PMID: 16762401]
[185]
Enick, O.V.; Moore, M.M. Assessing the assessments: pharmaceuticals in the environment. EIA Review., 2007, 27(8), 707-729.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2007.01.001]
[186]
Ferrari, B.; Paxéus, N.; Lo Giudice, R.; Pollio, A.; Garric, J. Ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceuticals found in treated wastewaters: study of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and diclofenac. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2003, 55(3), 359-370.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-6513(02)00082-9] [PMID: 12798771]
[187]
Webb, S.F. A data based perspective on the environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals II: aquatic risk characterization in: Pharmaceuticals in the environment. sources, fate, effects and risks; Kummerer, K., Ed.; Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG Berlin & Heidelberg: Germany, 2001, pp. 203-219.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-04634-0_16]
[188]
Jones, O.A.H.; Voulvoulis, N.; Lester, J.N. Aquatic environmental assessment of the top 25 English prescription pharmaceuticals. Water Res., 2002, 36(20), 5013-5022.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00227-0] [PMID: 12448549]
[189]
Trawiński, J.; Skibiński, R. Studies on photodegradation process of psychotropic drugs: a review. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2017, 24(2), 1152-1199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7727-5] [PMID: 27696160]
[190]
Henry, T.B.; Kwon, J.W.; Armbrust, K.L.; Black, M.C. Acute and chronic toxicity of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2004, 23(9), 2229-2233.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/03-278] [PMID: 15379001]
[191]
Lilius, H.; Isomaa, B.; Holmstrom, T. A comparison of the toxicity of 50 reference chemicals to freshly isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes and daphnia magna. Aquat. Toxicol., 1994, 30(1), 47-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-445X(94)90005-1]
[192]
Fong, P.P.; Molnar, N. Norfluoxetine induces spawning and parturition in estuarine and freshwater bivalves. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2008, 81(6), 535-538.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9558-7] [PMID: 18787749]
[193]
Brodin, T.; Fick, J.; Jonsson, M.; Klaminder, J. Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations. Science, 2013, 339(6121), 814-815.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1226850] [PMID: 23413353]
[194]
Abreu, M.M.; Danowski, A.; Wahl, D.G.; Amigo, M.C.; Tektonidou, M.; Pacheco, M.S.; Fleming, N.; Domingues, V.; Sciascia, S.; Lyra, J.O.; Petri, M.; Khamashta, M.; Levy, R.A. The relevance of “non-criteria” clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome: 14th international congress on antiphospholipid antibodies technical task force report on antiphospholipid syndrome clinical features. Autoimmun. Rev., 2015, 14(5), 401-414.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2015.01.002] [PMID: 25641203]
[195]
Bundschuh, M.; Hahn, T.; Ehrlich, B.; Höltge, S.; Kreuzig, R.; Schulz, R. Acute toxicity and environmental risks of five veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2016, 96(2), 139-143.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1656-8] [PMID: 26408031]
[196]
Daughton, C.G. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: overarching issues and overview.ACS symposium series; , 2001, 791, pp. (2)2-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2001-0791.ch001]
[197]
Suter, G.W. Ecological risk assessment; Lewis Publishers; Boca Raton, FL; ACS Publications Division, 1993.
[198]
Newman, M.C.; Unger, M.A. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology; Lewis Publishers, 2nd ed.; Boca Raton, FL; ACS Publications Division, 2003.
[199]
Pascoe, D.; Karntanut, W.; Müller, C.T. Do pharmaceuticals affect freshwater invertebrates? A study with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Chemosphere, 2003, 51(6), 521-528.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00860-3] [PMID: 12615105]
[200]
Huggett, D.B.; Brooks, B.W.; Peterson, B.; Foran, C.M.; Schlenk, D. Toxicity of select beta adrenergic receptor-blocking pharmaceuticals (B-blockers) on aquatic organisms. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2002, 43(2), 229-235.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-1182-7] [PMID: 12115049]
[201]
Painter, M.M.; Buerkley, M.A.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Schultz, M.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2009, 28(12), 2677-2684.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/08-556.1] [PMID: 19405782]
[202]
Flaherty, C.M.; Dodson, S.I. Effects of pharmaceuticals on Daphnia survival, growth, and reproduction. Chemosphere, 2005, 61(2), 200-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.016] [PMID: 16168743]
[203]
Mihaich, E.M.; Borgert, C.J.; Brighty, G.C.; Kortenkamp, A.; Laenge, R.; Snyder, S.A.; Sumpter, J.P. Evaluating simple and complex mixtures containing pharmaceuticals in the environment in: Human pharmaceuticals: Assessing the impacts on aquatic ecosystems, Boca Raton, FL; Williams, R.T., Ed.; Setac Press: Pensacola, FL, 2005.
[204]
DeLorenzo, M.E.; Fleming, J. Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products on the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2008, 54(2), 203-210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-9032-2] [PMID: 17846821]
[205]
Quinn, B.; Schmidt, W.; O’Rourke, K.; Hernan, R. Effects of the pharmaceuticals gemfibrozil and diclofenac on biomarker expression in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and their comparison with standardised toxicity tests. Chemosphere, 2011, 84(5), 657-663.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.033] [PMID: 21489596]
[206]
Kanda, R.; Griffin, P.; James, H.A.; Fothergill, J. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in sewage treatment works. J. Environ. Monit., 2003, 5(5), 823-830.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b306355k] [PMID: 14587856]
[207]
Marking, L.L. Method for assessing additive toxicity of chemical mixtures. Proceedings of the first annual symposium on Aquat Toxicol, Memphis, Tenn.1976, pp. 99-108.
[208]
Escher, B.I.; Bramaz, N.; Eggen, R.I.L.; Richter, M. In vitro assessment of modes of toxic action of pharmaceuticals in aquatic life. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39(9), 3090-3100.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es048590e] [PMID: 15926557]
[209]
Backhaus, T.; Sumpter, J.; Blanck, H. On the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical mixtures in: Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects and risks; Kümmerer, K., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, 2008, pp. 257-276.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74664-5_16]
[210]
Brooks, B.W.; Foran, C.M.; Richards, S.M.; Weston, J.; Turner, P.K.; Stanley, J.K.; Solomon, K.R.; Slattery, M.; La Point, T.W. Aquatic ecotoxicology of fluoxetine. Toxicol. Lett., 2003, 142(3), 169-183.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00066-3] [PMID: 12691711]
[211]
Connon, R.E.; Geist, J.; Werner, I. Effect-based tools for monitoring and predicting the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Sensors (Basel), 2012, 12(9), 12741-12771.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s120912741] [PMID: 23112741]
[212]
Liess, M.; Beketov, M. Traits and stress-keys to identify community effects at low toxicant level. Ecotoxicology, 2011, 20, 1328-1340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0689-y] [PMID: 21523409]
[213]
Sanderson, H. Pesticide studies: replicability of micro/mesocosms. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2002, 9(6), 429-435.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02987597] [PMID: 12515353]
[214]
De Jong, F.M.W.; Mensink, B.J.W.G.; Smit, C.E.; Montforts, M.H.M.M. Evaluation of ecotoxicological field studies for authorization of plant protection products in Europe. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess., 2005, 11, 1157-1176.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807030500278644]
[215]
Dyer, S.D.; White-Hull, C.E.; Shephard, B.K. Assessments of chemical mixtures via toxicity reference values overpredict hazard to Ohio fish communities. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2000, 34(12), 2518-2524.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es991160h]
[216]
Cleuvers, M. Aquatic ecotoxicology of selected pharmaceutical agents-algal and acute daphnia tests. Environ. Sci. Eur., 2002, 14, 85-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/uwsf2002.04.025]
[217]
Cleuvers, M. Initial risk assessment for three beta-blockers found in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere, 2005, 59(2), 199-205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.090] [PMID: 15722091]
[218]
Backhaus, T. Medicines, shaken and stirred: a critical review on the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical mixtures. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 2014, 369(1656)20130585
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0585] [PMID: 25405972]
[219]
Christensen, A.M.; Ingerslev, F.; Baun, A. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of antibiotics used in aquacultures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2006, 25(8), 2208-2215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/05-415R.1] [PMID: 16916040]
[220]
Dietrich, S.; Dammel, S.; Ploessl, F.; Bracher, F.; Laforsch, C. Effects of a pharmaceutical mixture at environmentally relevant concentrations on the amphipod gammarus fossarum. Mar. Freshw. Res., 2010, 61(2), 196-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF09048]
[221]
Brain, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Richards, S.M.; Hanson, M.L.; Sanderson, H.; Lam, M.W.; Young, C.; Mabury, S.A.; Sibley, P.K.; Solomon, K.R. Microcosm evaluation of the effects of an eight pharmaceutical mixture to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna Gibba and Myriophyllum Sibiricum. Aquat. Toxicol., 2004, 70(1), 23-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.06.011] [PMID: 15451605]
[222]
Richards, S.M.; Wilson, C.J.; Johnson, D.J.; Castle, D.M.; Lam, M.; Mabury, S.A.; Sibley, P.K.; Solomon, K.R. Effects of pharmaceutical mixtures in aquatic microcosms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2004, 23(4), 1035-1042.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/02-616] [PMID: 15095902]
[223]
Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D. Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions. Sci. Total Environ., 2004, 328(1-3), 119-130.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.01.015] [PMID: 15207578]
[224]
Ankley, G.T.; Jensen, K.M.; Durhan, E.J.; Makynen, E.A.; Butterworth, B.C.; Kahl, M.D.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Linnum, A.; Gray, L.E.; Cardon, M.; Wilson, V.S. Effects of two fungicides with multiple modes of action on reproductive endocrine function in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Toxicol. Sci., 2005, 86(2), 300-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi202] [PMID: 15901916]
[225]
Kortenkamp, A.; Evans, R.; Faust, M.; Kalberlah, F.; Scholze, M.; Schuhmacher‐Wolz, U. Investigation of the state of the science on combined actions of chemicals in food through dissimilar modes of action and proposal for science based approach for performing related cumulative risk assessment. EFSA Supporting Publications. 2012, 9(1), 232E. Available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/publications/June 25, 2017..
[226]
Krauss, M.; Singer, H.; Hollender, J. LC-high resolution MS in environmental analysis: from target screening to the identification of unknowns. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2010, 397(3), 943-951.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3608-9] [PMID: 20232059]
[227]
Pérez-Parada, A.; Agüera, A. Gómez-Ramos, Mdel.M.; García-Reyes, J.F.; Heinzen, H.; Fernández-Alba, A.R. Behavior of amoxicillin in wastewater and river water: identification of its main transformation products by liquid chromatography/electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 2011, 25(6), 731-742.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.4902] [PMID: 21337634]
[228]
Kosjek, T.; Heath, E.; Petrovic, M.; Barcelo, D. Mass spectrometry for identifying pharmaceutical biotransformation products in the environment. Trends Analyt. Chem., 2007, 26, 1076-1085.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2007.10.005]
[229]
Jakimska, A.; Kot-Wasik, A.; Namieśnik, J. The current state-of-the-art in the determination of pharmaceutical residues in environmental matrices using hyphenated techniques. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 2014, 44(3), 277-298.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408347.2013.835244] [PMID: 25391566]
[230]
Farré, M.L.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barceló, D. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri. J. Chromatogr. A, 2001, 938(1-2), 187-197.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01154-2] [PMID: 11771838]
[231]
Ferrer, I.; Thurman, E.M. Liquid chromatography/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC/TOF/MS) for the analysis of emerging contaminants. Trends Analyt. Chem., 2003, 22, 750-756.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-9936(03)01013-6]
[232]
Tölgyesi, A.; Verebey, Z.; Sharma, V.K.; Kovacsics, L.; Fekete, J. Simultaneous determination of corticosteroids, androgens, and progesterone in river water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chemosphere, 2010, 78(8), 972-979.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.12.025] [PMID: 20071003]
[233]
Białk-Bielińska, A.; Kumirska, J.; Borecka, M.; Caban, M.; Paszkiewicz, M.; Pazdro, K.; Stepnowski, P. Selected analytical challenges in the determination of pharmaceuticals in drinking/marine waters and soil/sediment samples. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2016, 121, 271-296.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.01.016]
[234]
Pauwels, B.; Verstraete, W. The treatment of hospital wastewater: an appraisal. J. Water Health, 2006, 4(4), 405-416.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2006.0024] [PMID: 17176811]
[235]
Nikolaou, A.; Meric, S.; Fatta, D. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2007, 387(4), 1225-1234.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-1035-8] [PMID: 17205270]
[236]
Akmehmet Balcioğlu, I.; Otker, M. Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater containing antibiotics by O3 and O3/H2O2 processes. Chemosphere, 2003, 50(1), 85-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00534-9] [PMID: 12656233]
[237]
Dalrymple, O.K.; Yeh, D.H.; Trotz, M.A. Removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds from wastewater by photocatalysis. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 2007, 2007(82), 121-134.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1657]
[238]
Adams, C.; Asce, M.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes. J. Environ. Eng., 2002, 28, 253-260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2002)128:3(253)]
[239]
Wang, J.; Wang, S. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: A review. J. Environ. Manage., 2016, 182, 620-640.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.07.049]] [PMID: 27552641]
[240]
Ikehata, K.; Jodeiri Naghashkar, N.; Gamal El-Din, M. Degradation of aqueous pharmaceuticals by ozonation and advanced oxidation processes: A review. Ozone Sci. Eng., 2006, 28(6), 353-414.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01919510600985937]
[241]
Ternes, T.A.; Stüber, J.; Herrmann, N.; McDowell, D.; Ried, A.; Kampmann, M.; Teiser, B. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater? Water Res., 2003, 37(8), 1976-1982.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00570-5]] [PMID: 12697241]
[242]
Yargeau, V.; Leclair, C. Impact of operating conditions on decomposition of antibiotics during ozonation: a review. Ozone Sci. Eng., 2008, 30, 175-188.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01919510701878387]
[243]
Mackuľak, T.; Mosný, M.; Grabic, R.; Golovko, O.; Koba, O.; Birošová, L. Fenton-like reaction: a possible way to efficiently remove illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals from wastewater. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2015, 39(2), 483-488.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.12.016] [PMID: 25680092]
[244]
De Oliveira, T.D.; Martini, W.S.; Santos, M.D.R.; Matos, M.A.C.; Da Rocha, L.L. Caffeine oxidation in water by fenton and fenton-like processes: effects of inorganic anions and ecotoxicological evaluation on aquatic organisms. J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 2015, 26(1), 178-184.
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5935/0103-5053.20140237]
[245]
Monsalvo, V.M.; Lopez, J.; Munoz, M.; De Pedro, Z.M.; Casas, J.A.; Mohedano, A.F.; Rodriguez, J.J. Application of fenton-like oxidation as pre-treatment for carbamazepine biodegradation. Chem. Eng. J., 2015, 264, 856-862.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.11.141]
[246]
Jodat, A.; Jodat, A. Photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol and tartrazine using Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles. Desalin Water Treat., 2014, 52(13-15), 2668-2677.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.794115]
[247]
Hapeshi, E.; Achilleos, A.; Vasquez, M.I.; Michael, C.; Xekoukoulotakis, N.P.; Mantzavinos, D.; Kassinos, D. Drugs degrading photocatalytically: Kinetics and mechanisms of ofloxacin and atenolol removal on titania suspensions. Water Res., 2010, 44(6), 1737-1746.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.11.044] [PMID: 20031189]
[248]
Elmolla, E.S.; Chaudhuri, M. Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes for treatment of antibiotic aqueous solution. Desalination, 2010, 256(1-3), 43-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.02.019]
[249]
Mohapatra, D.P.; Brar, S.K.; Tyagi, R.D.; Picard, P.; Surampalli, R.Y. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine. Sci. Total Environ., 2014, 470-471, 58-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.034] [PMID: 24140682]
[250]
Hartig, C.; Ernst, M.; Jekel, M. Membrane filtration of two sulphonamides in tertiary effluents and subsequent adsorption on activated carbon. Water Res., 2001, 35(16), 3998-4003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00109-9] [PMID: 12230185]
[251]
Guo, H.; Deng, Y.; Tao, Z.; Yao, Z.; Wang, J.; Lin, C.; Zhang, T.; Zhu, B.; Tang, C.Y. Does hydrophilic polydopamine coating enhance membrane rejection of hydrophobic endocrine-disrupting compounds? Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 2016, 3(9), 332-338.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00263]
[252]
Heberer, T.; Feldmann, D.; Reddersen, K.; Altmann, H.J.; Zimmermann, T. Production of drinking water from highly contaminated surface waters: removal of organic, inorganic, and microbial contaminants applying mobile membrane filtration units. Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol., 2002, 30(1), 24-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-401X(200207)30:1<24:AID-AHEH24>3.0.CO;2-O]
[253]
Nghiem, L.D.; Schäfer, A.I.; Elimelech, M. Removal of natural hormones by nanofiltration membranes: measurement, modeling, and mechanisms. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2004, 38(6), 1888-1896.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034952r] [PMID: 15074703]
[254]
Nghiem, L.D.; Schäfer, A.I.; Elimelech, M. Pharmaceutical retention mechanisms by nanofiltration membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39(19), 7698-7705.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0507665] [PMID: 16245847]
[255]
Hijnen, W.A.M.; Beerendonk, E.F.; Medema, G.J. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (OO)cysts in water: a review. Water Res., 2006, 40(1), 3-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.10.030] [PMID: 16386286]
[256]
Canonica, S.; Meunier, L.; von Gunten, U. Phototransformation of selected pharmaceuticals during UV treatment of drinking water. Water Res., 2008, 42(1-2), 121-128.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.07.026] [PMID: 17709124]
[257]
Salgado, R.; Pereira, V.J.; Carvalho, G.; Soeiro, R.; Gaffney, V.; Almeida, C.; Vale Cardoso, V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Ternes, T.A.; Oehmen, A.; Reis, M.A.M.; Noronha, J.P. Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater., 2013, 244-245, 516-527.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.039] [PMID: 23177274]
[258]
Lin, A.Y.C.; Reinhard, M. Photodegradation of common environmental pharmaceuticals and estrogens in river water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2005, 24(6), 1303-1309.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/04-236R.1] [PMID: 16117104]
[259]
Rizzo, L. Bioassays as a tool for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater treatment. Water Res., 2011, 45(15), 4311-4340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.035] [PMID: 21722938]
[260]
Lucas, D.; Barceló, D.; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by fungal treatment and reduction of hazard quotients. Sci. Total Environ., 2016, 571, 909-915.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.074] [PMID: 27436780]
[261]
Atchana, J.; Simu, G.M.; Hora, S.G.; Grad, M.E.; Tchatchueng, J.B.; Benguellah, B.L.; Kamga, R. Removal of some disazo compounds from water by photocatalysis. JFAE, 2011, 9(1), 132-135.
[262]
Wang, X.H.; Lin, A.Y. Is the phototransformation of pharmaceuticals a natural purification process that decreases ecological and human health risks? Environ. Pollut., 2014, 186, 203-215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.007] [PMID: 24388870]
[263]
He, Y.; Sutton, N.B.; Rijnaarts, H.H.H.; Langenhof, A.A.M. Degradation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater using immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis under simulated solar irradiation. Appl. Catal. B, 2016, 182, 132-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.09.015]
[264]
Larsen, T.A.; Lienert, J.; Joss, A.; Siegrist, H. How to avoid pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment? J. Biotechnol., 2004, 113(1-3), 295-304.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2004.03.033 PMID: 15380662]
[265]
Snyder, S.A.; Westerhoff, P.; Yoon, Y.; Sedlak, D.L. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: implications for the water industry. Environ. Eng. Sci., 2003, 20(5), 449-469.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109287503768335931]
[266]
Tiwari, D.K.; Behari, J.; Sen, P. Application of nanoparticles in waste water treatment. World Appl. Sci. J., 2008, 3(3), 417-433.
[267]
Bagheri, S.; Termehyousefi, A.; On Do, T. Photocatalytic pathway toward degradation of environmental pharmaceutical pollutants: structure, kinetics and mechanism approach. Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017, 7, 4548-4569.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C7CY00468K]
[268]
Gaya, U.I.; Abdullah, A.H. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants over titanium dioxide: a review of fundamentals, progress and problems. J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem., 2008, 9(1), 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2007.12.003]
[269]
Klavarioti, M.; Mantzavinos, D.; Kassinos, D. Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes. Environ. Int., 2009, 35(2), 402-417.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.009] [PMID: 18760478]
[270]
Singh, P.K.T.R.; Vats, S.; Kumar, D.; Tyagi, S. Nanomaterials use in wastewater treatment. International conference on nanotechnology and chemical engineering, 2012, pp. 65-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2261.2806]
[271]
Mueller, N.C.; Nowack, B. Nanotechnology developments for the environment sector. Report of the observatory Nano, 2009. Available at: http://www.observatorynano.eu/project/June 27, 2017.
[272]
Petala, M.; Tsiridis, V.; Samaras, P.; Zouboulis, A.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. Wastewater reclamation by advanced treatment of secondary effluents. Desalination, 2006, 195, 109-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.10.037]
[273]
Jodat, A.; Jodat, A. Photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol and tartrazine using Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles. Desalination Water Treat., 2014, 52(13-15), 2668-2677.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.794115]
[274]
Teixeira, S.; Gurke, R.; Eckert, H.; Kühn, K.; Fauler, J.; Cuniberti, G. Photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals present in conventional treated wastewater by nanoparticle suspensions. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2016, 4, 287-292.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.10.045]
[275]
Mohammadi, R.; Massoumi, B.; Eskandarloo, H. Preparation and characterization of Sn/Zn/TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced Amoxicillin Trihydrate degradation. Desalination Water Treat., 2015, 53(7), 1995-2004.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.862867]
[276]
Shokri, M.; Jodat, A.; Modirshahla, N.; Behnajady, M.A. Photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol in an aqueous suspension of silver-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Environ. Technol., 2013, 34(9-12), 1161-1166.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.743589] [PMID: 24191448]
[277]
Nadim, A.H.; Al-Ghobashy, M.A.; Nebsen, M.; Shehata, M.A. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of meloxicam using titanium dioxide nanoparticles: application to pharmaceutical wastewater analysis, treatment, and cleaning validation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2015, 22(20), 15516-15525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4713-2] [PMID: 26006070]
[278]
Afkhami, A.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Bagheri, H. Modified Maghemite nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for removing some cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Desalination, 2010, 263(1-3), 240.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.06.065]
[279]
Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Khoshsafar, H. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of Schiff base/silica/magnetite as a preconcentration phase for the trace determination of heavy metal ions in water, food and biological samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 2012, 97, 87-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2012.03.066] [PMID: 22841051]
[280]
Bagheri, H.; Asgharinezhad, A.A.; Ebrahimzadeh, H. Novel sensor fabrication for the determination of nanomolar concentrations of Hg2+ in some foods and water samples based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid and a new schiff base. Food Anal. Methods, 2014, 7(6), 1204-1212.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-013-9734-1]
[281]
Thatai, S.H.; Khurana, P.; Boken, J.; Prasad, S.; Kumar, D. Nanoparticles and core-shell nanocomposite based new generation water remediation materials and analytical techniques: a review. Microchem. J., 2014, 116, 62-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2014.04.001]
[282]
Yan, J.; Lei, M.; Zhu, L.; Anjum, M.N.; Zou, J.; Tang, H. Degradation of sulfamonomethoxine with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as heterogeneous activator of persulfate. J. Hazard. Mater., 2011, 186(2-3), 1398-1404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.017] [PMID: 21237557]
[283]
Mackuľak, T.; Birošová, L.; Bodík, I.; Grabic, R.; Takáčová, A.; Smolinská, M.; Hanusová, A.; Híveš, J.; Gál, M. Zerovalent iron and iron(VI): effective means for the removal of psychoactive pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs from wastewaters. Sci. Total Environ., 2016, 539, 420-426.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.138] [PMID: 26376114]
[284]
Stan, M.; Lung, I.; Soran, M.L.; Leostean, C.; Popa, A.; Stefan, M.; Lazar, M.D.; Opris, O.; Silipas, T.D.; Porav, A.S. Removal of antibiotics from aqueous solutions by green synthesized magnetite nanoparticles with selected agro-waste extracts. Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 2017, 107, 357-372.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2017.03.003]
[285]
Pouretedal, H.R.; Hasanali, M.A. Photocatalytic degradation of some β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous suspension of ZnS nanoparticles. Desalination Water Treat., 2013, 51(13-15), 2617-2623.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.749197]
[286]
Xu, P.; Zeng, G.M.; Huang, D.L.; Feng, C.L.; Hu, S.; Zhao, M.H.; Lai, C.; Wei, Z.; Huang, C.; Xie, G.X.; Liu, Z.F. Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Sci. Total Environ., 2012, 424, 1-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.023] [PMID: 22391097]
[287]
Colvin, V.L. The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials. Nat. Biotechnol., 2003, 21(10), 1166-1170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt875] [PMID: 14520401]
[288]
Camilli, L.; Pisani, C.; Gautron, E.; Scarselli, M.; Castrucci, P.; D’Orazio, F.; Passacantando, M.; Moscone, D.; De Crescenzi, M. A three-dimensional carbon nanotube network for water treatment. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25(6) 065701
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/25/6/065701] [PMID: 24434944]
[289]
Lara, I.V.; Zanella, I.; Fagan, S.B. Functionalization of carbon nanotube by carboxyl group under radial deformation. Chem. Phys., 2014, 428, 117-120.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2013.11.007]
[290]
Kim, H.; Hwang, Y.S.; Sharma, V.K. Adsorption of antibiotics and Iopromide onto single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem. Eng. J., 2014, 255, 23-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.06.035]
[291]
Singh, R.K.; Patel, K.D.; Kim, J.J.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, U.S.; Lee, E.J.; Knowles, J.C.; Kim, H.W. Multifunctional hybrid nanocarrier: magnetic CNTs ensheathed with mesoporous silica for drug delivery and imaging system. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6(4), 2201-2208.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am4056936] [PMID: 24476195]
[292]
Zhang, D.; Pan, B.; Zhang, H.; Ning, P.; Xing, B. Contribution of different sulfamethoxazole species to their overall adsorption on functionalized carbon nanotubes. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44(10), 3806-3811.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903851q] [PMID: 20394427]
[293]
Yu, F.; Sun, S.; Han, S.; Zheng, J.; Ma, J. Adsorption removal of Ciprofloxacin by multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J., 2016, 285, 588-595.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.10.039]
[294]
Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Cao, Z.; Zhan, Y.; Shi, X.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Xu, J. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of chloramphenicols, sulfonamides, and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Hazard. Mater., 2016, 310, 235-245.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.02.045] [PMID: 26937870]
[295]
Zaib, Q.; Mansoor, B.; Ahmad, F. Photo-regenerable multi-walled carbon nanotube membranes for the removal of pharmaceutical micropollutants from water. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts, 2013, 15(8), 1582-1589.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3em00150d] [PMID: 23811952]
[296]
Czech, B.; Buda, W. Photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater using new multiwall-carbon nanotubes/TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites. Environ. Res., 2015, 137, 176-184.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.12.006] [PMID: 25543548]
[297]
Peng, H.; Pan, B.; Wu, M.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, D.; Xing, B. Adsorption of ofloxacin and norfloxacin on carbon nanotubes: hydrophobicity- and structure-controlled process. J. Hazard. Mater., 2012, 233-234, 89-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.06.058] [PMID: 22819959]
[298]
Peng, B.; Chen, L.; Que, C.; Yang, K.; Deng, F.; Deng, X.; Shi, G.; Xu, G.; Wu, M. adsorption of antibiotics on graphene and biochar in aqueous solutions induced by π-π interactions. Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, 31920.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep31920] [PMID: 27534975]
[299]
Carabineiro, S.A.C.; Thavorn-Amornsri, T.; Pereira, M.F.R.; Serp, P.; Figueiredo, J.L. Comparison between activated carbon, carbon xerogel and carbon nanotubes for the adsorption of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Catal. Today, 2012, 186(1), 29-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2011.08.020]
[300]
Wang, Z.; Yu, X.; Pan, B.; Xing, B. Norfloxacin sorption and its thermodynamics on surface-modified carbon nanotubes. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44(3), 978-984.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es902775u] [PMID: 20030389]
[301]
Zhao, X.; Liu, R. Recent progress and perspectives on the toxicity of carbon nanotubes at organism, organ, cell, and biomacromolecule levels. Environ. Int., 2012, 40, 244-255.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.003] [PMID: 22244841]
[302]
Du, J.; Wang, S.; You, H.; Zhao, X. Understanding the toxicity of carbon nanotubes in the environment is crucial to the control of nanomaterials in producing and processing and the assessment of health risk for human: a review. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2013, 36(2), 451-462.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.05.007] [PMID: 23770455]
[303]
Homem, V.; Santos, L. Degradation and removal methods of antibiotics from aqueous matrices--a review. J. Environ. Manage., 2011, 92(10), 2304-2347.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.023] [PMID: 21680081]
[304]
Derakhsheshpoor, R.; Homayoonfal, M.; Akbari, A.; Mehrnia, M.R. Amoxicillin separation from pharmaceutical wastewater by high permeability polysulfone nanofiltration membrane. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 2013, 11(1), 9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-11-9] [PMID: 24499593]
[305]
Jeffery-Black, S.; Duranceau, S.J. The influence of solute polarizability and molecular volume on the rejection of trace organics in loose nanofiltration membrane processes. Desalination Water Treat., 2016, 57(60), 29059-29069.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2016.1201013]
[306]
Kosutic, K.; Dolar, D.; Asperger, D.; Kunst, B. Removal of antibiotics from a model wastewater by Ro/Nf membranes. Separ. Purif. Tech., 2007, 53, 244-249.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2006.07.015]
[307]
Li, S.Z.; Li, X.Y.; Wang, D.Z. Membrane (Ro-Uf) filtration for antibiotic wastewater treatment and recovery of antibiotics. Separ. Purif. Tech., 2004, 34(1-3), 109-114.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5866(03)00184-9]
[308]
Radjenović, J.; Petrović, M.; Ventura, F.; Barceló, D. Rejection of pharmaceuticals in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane drinking water treatment. Water Res., 2008, 42(14), 3601-3610.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.05.020] [PMID: 18656225]
[309]
Pan, F.F.; Zhu, M.P.; Chen, J.P.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhong, L.B.; Zheng, Y.M. Separation of tetracycline from wastewater using forward osmosis process with thin film composite membrane - implications for antibiotics recovery. Separ. Purif. Tech., 2015, 153, 76-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.08.034]
[310]
Koyuncu, I.; Arikan, O.A.; Wiesner, M.R.; Rice, C. Removal of hormones and antibiotics by nanofiltration membranes. J. Membr. Sci., 2008, 309, 94-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2007.10.010]
[311]
Qurie, M.; Khamis, M.; Malek, F.; Nir, S.; Bufo, S.A.; Abbadi, J.; Scrano, L.; Karaman, R. Stability and removal of naproxen and its metabolite by advanced membrane wastewater treatment plant and micelle-clay complex. Clean (Weinh.), 2014, 42(5), 594-600.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300179]
[312]
Jurecska, L.; Dobosy, P.; Barkács, K.; Fenyvesi, É.; Záray, G. Reprint of “Characterization of cyclodextrin containing nanofilters for removal of pharmaceutical residues”. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2015, 106, 124-128.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2015.01.024] [PMID: 25638693]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [121 - 153]
Pages: 33
DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666181108094222
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 28
HTML: 3