The Effect of Borage (Echium amoenum) on the Mouse Heart and Hematology Parameters

Author(s): Parisa Sadighara*, Atefeh Araghi, Behrouz Tajdar-oranj, Leila Peivasteh-roudsari, Afsaneh Mohajer, Ramezan Behzadi

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: There has been considerable interest in the potential health benefits of borage. Little information is available regarding the safety of this plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of borage on the mouse heart.

Methods: Different amounts of borage extract were injected in mice. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups including group1 (Control group without injection), group2, 3 and 4 that received 12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively for 28 days. Oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, total glutathione groups assay and cupric assay) and biochemical (Creatine kinase activity and total cholesterol) and hematology parameters were evaluated. Furthermore, histopathology study was carried out on heart tissues.

Results: We found that there was no significant difference in oxidative stress parameters and biochemical parameters between the control group and the groups that received different amounts of borage extract. There were also no changes in histopathology study. In blood parameters, the level of erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to 50mg/kg, whereas the level of MCH and MCV decreased in high doses.

Conclusion: This article suggested that borage did not cause significant damage to the heart tissue in mice model. In hematology factors, significant changes were observed in erythrocytes and related parameters. Therefore, hematotoxicity of consumption this plant should be considered at high doses.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, borage, cholesterol, heart effect, hematology parameter, oxidative stress.

Sharma, R. Herbal supplements or herbs in heart disease: History, herbal foods, coronary heart disease, in bioactive food as dietary interventions for cardiovascular disease. 2013, Elsevier. p. 29-61.
Abolhassani, M. Antiviral activity of borage (Echium amoenum). Arch. Med. Sci., 2010, 6(3), 366-369.
Asadi-Samani, M.; Bahmani, M.; Rafieian-Kopaei, M. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: A review. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 2014, 7(S1), S22-S28.
Naghdi Badi, H.; Soroshzadeh, A.; Rezazadeh, S.H.; Sharifi, A.; Ghalavand, A.; Omidi, O. Review on borage (valuable medicinal plant and the richest plant source of gamma linolenic acid). J. Med. Plants, 2007, 6(24), 1-16.
Gómez-Estaca, J.; Giménez, P.; Montero, B.; Gómez-Guillén, M.C. Incorporation of antioxidant borage extract into edible films based on sole skin gelatin or a commercial fish gelatin. J. Food Eng., 2009, 92(1), 78-85.
Cheeke, P. Toxicity and metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. J. Anim. Sci., 1988, 66(9), 2343-2350.
Lozano-Baena, M.D.; Tasset, I.; Andres, M.; Angeles, A.M.; Antonio, H.B. Cancer prevention and health benefices of traditionally consumed Borago officinalis plants. Nutrients, 2016, 8(1), 1-16.
Kalhor, H.R.; Ashrafian, H. Identification of an aspidospermine derivative from borage extract as an anti-amyloid compound: A possible link between protein aggregation and antimalarial drugs. Phytochemistry, 2017, 140(Supplement. C), 134-140.
Gama, C.R.B.; Lasmar, R.; Gama, G.F.; Oliveira, L.; de Oliveira Naliato, E.C.; Ribeiro, M.G.; de Paoli, F.; de Souza da Fonseca, A.; Abreu, C.S.; Geller, M.; Santos, A. Clinical assessment of treatment outcomes following borago officinalis extract therapy in patients presenting with cyclical mastalgia. Int. J. Clin. Med., 2015, 6(6), 363-371.
Arginteanu, R. Method of reducing stress and circulatory heart disease with freeze-dried borage petal extracts. 1998, Google Patents.
Araghi, A.; Seifi, S.; Sayrafi, R.; Sadighara, P. Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model. Avicenna J. Phytomed., 2016, 6(3), 351-356.
Gibson, X.A.; Shartava, A.; Mclntyre, J. The efficacy of reducing agents or antioxidants in blocking the formation of dense cells and irreversibly sickled cells in vitro. Blood, 1998, 91(11), 4373-4378.
Apak, R.; Guclu, K.; Ozyurek, M.; Celik, S. Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Mikrochim. Acta, 2008, 160(4), 413-419.
Ma, Q. Transcriptional responses to oxidative stress: Pathological and toxicological implications. Pharmacol. Ther., 2010, 125(3), 376-393.
Giordano, F.J. Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure. J. Clin. Invest., 2005, 115(3), 500-508.
Sadighara, P.; Goudarzi, S.; Bahmani, M.; Asadi-Samani, M. Antioxidant activity and properties of walnut brown seed coat extract. J. Glob. Pharma Technol., 2016, 11(8), 26-30.
Sadighara, P.; Mohammadpour, I.; Jahanbakhsh, M.; Araghi, A.; Nazaktabar, A. The effect of stevia on the chicken embryo heart. Cardiovasc. Hematol. Disord. Drug Targets, 2016, 16(1), 38-40.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 04 July, 2019
Page: [154 - 159]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1871529X18666181105113617
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 52