Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cuscuta Epithymum Enhances Pentobarbitalinduced Sleep: Possible Involvement of GABAergic System

Author(s): Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Mohammad M. Vahedi, Azita Aghaei, Hassan Rakhshandeh*

Journal Name: Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Volume 17 , Issue 3 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic potential of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of Cuscuta epithymum and its fractions.

Method: HAE and its fractions including: water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-hexan fraction (NHF) were i.p administered to male mice and 30 min later pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Then the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Besides, 30 mins after administration of HAE motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. Additionally, LD50 of HAE was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells.

Results: The HAE and NHF decreased the latency of sleep and significantly increased the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital. These effects of C. epithymum were reversed by flumazenil. HAE did not affect the animals’ performance on the rotarod test. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/kg. HAE and its fractions had no toxicity effect on the viability of PC12-cell line.

Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the HAE and NHF have significant sedativehypnotic effects in mice without major toxic effect and that the benzodiazepine receptors are involved in the sedative-hypnotic effects of this plant.

Keywords: Insomnia, diazepam, Cuscuta epithymum, Sleep, PC12, gabaergic system.

[1]
Zaharna M, Guilleminault C. Sleep, noise and health: review. Noise Health 2010; 12(47): 64- 9. [review].
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.63205] [PMID: 20472951]
[2]
Stone KL, Ensrud KE, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep, insomnia and falls in elderly patients. Sleep Med 2008; 9(Suppl. 1): S18-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-9457(08)70012-1] [PMID: 18929314]
[3]
Muzet A. [The effects of noise on sleep and their possible repercussions on health]. Med Sci (Paris) 2006; 22(11): 973-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/20062211973] [PMID: 17101100]
[4]
Goel N, Rao H, Durmer JS, Dinges DF. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 2009; 29(4): 320-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1237117] [PMID: 19742409]
[5]
Longo LP, Johnson B. Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines--side effects, abuse risk and alternatives. Am Fam Physician 2000; 61(7): 2121-8.
[PMID: 10779253]
[6]
Uzun S, Kozumplik O, Jakovljević M, Sedić B. Side effects of treatment with benzodiazepines. Psychiatr Danub 2010; 22(1): 90-3.
[PMID: 20305598]
[7]
Ghorbani A, Rakhshandeh H, Sadeghnia HR. Potentiating effects of Lactuca sativa on pentobarbital-induced sleep. Iran J Pharm Res 2013; 12(2): 401-6.
[PMID: 24250615]
[8]
Phillipson JD. Phytochemistry and medicinal plants. Phytochemistry 2001; 56(3): 237-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00456-8] [PMID: 11243450]
[9]
Chanda S. Importance of pharmacognostic study of medicinal plants: An overview. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014; 2: 69-73.
[10]
Forouzanfar F, Hosseinzadeh H. Medicinal herbs in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018; 21(4): 347-58.
[PMID: 29796216]
[11]
McNeal JR, Arumugunathan K, Kuehl JV, Boore JL, Depamphilis CW. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae). BMC Biol 2007; 5: 55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-5-55] [PMID: 18078516]
[12]
Costea M, Spence I, Stefanović S. Systematics of Cuscuta chinensis species complex (subgenus Grammica, Convolvulaceae): evidence for long-distance dispersal and one new species. Org Divers Evol 2011; 11: 373-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13127-011-0061-3]
[13]
Jayasinghe C, Wijesundara D, Tennakoon K, Marambe B. Cuscuta species in the lowlands of Sri Lanka, their host range and host-parasite association. Tropical Agricultural Research 2004; 16: 223-41.
[14]
Jafarian A, Ghannadi A, Mohebi B. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells. Res Pharm Sci 2014; 9(2): 115-22.
[PMID: 25657780]
[15]
Qasem JR. Parasitic flowering plants on cultivated plants in Jordan—the present status and management. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science 2010; 16: 227-39.
[16]
Mehrabani M, Modirian E, Ebrahimabadi A, Vafazadeh J, Shahnavaz S, Heidari MR. Study of the Effects of hydro-methanol extracts of lavandula vera DC. and cuscuta epithymum murr. on the seizure induced by pentylentetranzol in Mice. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2007; 14: 25-32.
[17]
Ismail M. Central Properties and Chemical Composition of Ocimum basilicum. Essential Oil. Pharm Biol 2006; 44(8): 619-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200600897544]
[18]
Pal D, Panda C, Sinhababu S, Dutta A, Bhattacharya S. Evaluation of psychopharmacological effects of petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem in mice. Acta Pol Pharm 2003; 60(6): 481-6.
[PMID: 15080597]
[19]
Conforti F, Statti G, Uzunov D, Menichini F. Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds. Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29(10): 2056-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.2056] [PMID: 17015951]
[20]
Hosseini A, Ghorbani A, Sadeghnia HR, Rajabian A, Rakhshandeh H. Potentiating effects of Lactuca serriola on pentobarbital-induced sleep. Res Opin Anim Vet Sci 2014; 4: 601-7.
[21]
Hosseini A, Forouzanfar F, Rakhshandeh H. Hypnotic effect of Nepeta glomerulosa on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2016; 11(1) : 10.17795/jjnpp-25063
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp-25063]
[22]
Forouzanfar F, Ghorbani A, Hosseini M, Rakhshandeh H. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system. Avicenna J Phytomed 2016; 6(4): 449-57.
[PMID: 27516986]
[23]
Vafaee F, Hosseini M, Sadeghinia HR, Hadjzadeh MA, Soukhtanloo M, Rahimi M. The effects of soy extract on spatial learning and memory damage induced by global ischemia in ovariectomised rats. Malays J Med Sci 2014; 21(3): 19-30.
[PMID: 25246832]
[24]
Ghazavi H, Hoseini SJ, Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor type 1 (FGF1)-overexpressed adipose-derived mesenchaymal stem cells (AD-MSCFGF1) induce neuroprotection and functional recovery in a rat stroke model. Stem Cell Rev Rep 2017; 13(5): 670-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-017-9755-z] [PMID: 28795363]
[25]
Forouzanfar F, Afkhami Goli A, Asadpour E, Ghorbani A, Sadeghnia HR. Protective effect of Punica granatum L against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury Evid Based Complementary Alternat Med 2013; 2013
[26]
Shetty Akhila J, Alwar M. Acute toxicity studies and determination of median lethal dose. Curr Sci 2007; 93: 917-20.
[27]
Sharma M, Rauniar G, Das B. Experimental study of various central nervous system effects of eugenol in mice and rats. Health Renaiss 2012; 10: 208-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hren.v10i3.7137]
[28]
Edewor-Kuponiyi TI. Plant-Derived Compounds with Potential Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities. Int. J Basic Appl Sci 2009; 2: 63-78.
[29]
Biswas SKCA, Das J, Karamkar UK, et al. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic evaluation with antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Cuscuta epithymum. Int J Pharm 2012; 8: 422-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2012.422.427]
[30]
Liu ZL, Goh SH, Ho SH. Screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for bioactivity against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J Stored Prod Res 2007; 43: 290-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2006.06.010]
[31]
Johnston GA. GABA(A) receptor channel pharmacology. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11(15): 1867-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612054021024] [PMID: 15974965]
[32]
López-Rubalcava C, Hen R, Cruz SL. Anxiolytic-like actions of toluene in the burying behavior and plus-maze tests: differences in sensitivity between 5-HT(1B) knockout and wild-type mice. Behav Brain Res 2000; 115(1): 85-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(00)00241-2] [PMID: 10996411]
[33]
Farkas S, Berzsenyi P, Kárpáti E, Kocsis P, Tarnawa I. Simple pharmacological test battery to assess efficacy and side effect profile of centrally acting muscle relaxant drugs. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2005; 52(2): 264-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2004.11.005] [PMID: 16125625]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2020
Published on: 15 July, 2020
Page: [332 - 337]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1570163815666181105091801
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 14
HTML: 2