Cozzolino M, Brancaccio D. Clinical consequences and novel therapy of hyperphosphatemia lanthanum carbonate for dialysis patients. Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 2007; 2(1): 29-34.
Taniwaki H, Ishimura E, Tabata T, et al. Aortic calcification in haemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20(11): 2472-8.
Cozzolino M, Galassi A, Bellasi A, Gallieni M, Brancaccio D. The bone-vasculature-axis interaction new insights into the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. G Ital Nefrol 2007; 24: 409-14.
Lehto S, Niskanen L, Suhonen M, Rönnemaa T, Laakso M. Medial artery calcification a neglected harbinger of cardiovascular complications in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996; 16: 978-83.
Hafer H. The hidden drug dietary phosphate, taking drug-free control of attention deficit disorder 6th edition published by Thieme Verlag: Germany ISBN 3-8226-4488-9
Saldana TM, Basso O, Darden R, Sandler DP. Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease. Epidemiol 2007; 18: 501-6.
Liu Y, Zhang L, Ni Z, Qian J, Fang W. Calcium phosphate crystals from uremic serum promote osteogenic differentiation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Calcif Tissue Int 2016; 99: 543-55.
Conly JM, Stein K, Worobetz L, et al. The contribution of vitamin K2 menaquinones produced by the intestinal microflora to human nutritional requirements for vitamin K. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 899: 15-923.
Shea MK, Holden RM. Vitamin K status and vascular calcification evidence from observational and clinical studies. Adv Nutr 2012; 32: 158-65.
Jono S, Shioi A, Ikari Y, et al. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. J Bone Miner Metab 2006; 24: 176-81.
Steitz SA, Speer MY, Curinga G, et al. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic transition associated with calcification upregulation of Cbfa1 and downregulation of smooth muscle lineage markers. Circ Res 2001; 89: 1147-54.
Jayalath RW, Mangan SH, Golledge J. Aortic calcification. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005; 30: 476-88.
Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE, et al. Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ Res 2000; 87: E10-7.
Menon V, Gul A, Sarnak MJ. Cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 1413-8.
Ben-Shlomo I, Farber E, Dahan I, Nakhoul F. Vascular pseudo-ossification rather than “Vascular Calcification” – a new term for an old phenomenon in chronic kidney disease Perspective and new opinion. Int J Nephrol Kidney Failure 2015; p. 14.
Kestenbaum B, Sampson JN, Rudser KD, et al. Serum phosphate levels and mortality risk among people with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 520-8.
El Asmar MS, Naoum JJ, Arbid EJ. Vitamin K dependent proteins and the role of vitamin K2 in the modulation of vascular calcification A Review. Oman Med J 2014; 293: 172-7.
Towler DA. Inorganic pyrophosphate a paracrine regulator of vascular calcification and smooth muscle phenotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 651-4.
Li X, Yang HY, Giachelli CM. Role of the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, Pit-1, in vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ Res 2006; 987: 905-12.
Giachelli CM. The emerging role of phosphate in vascular calcification. Kidney Int 2009; 75: 890-7.
Neven E, Dams G, Postnov A, et al. Adequate phosphate binding with lanthanum carbonate attenuates arterial calcification in chronic renal failure rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 1790-9.
Chen NX, O’Neill KD, Duan D, Moe SM. Phosphorus and uremic serum upregulate osteopontin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 1724-31.
Civitelli R, Ziambaras K. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis Concerted interplay of new regulators. J Endocrinol Invest 2011; 34: 3-7.
Kwak SM, Kim JS, Choi Y, et al. Dietary intake of calcium and phosphorus and serum concentration in relation to the risk of coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014; 34: 1763-9.
Calvo MS, Uribarri J. Public Health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 981: 6-15.
Nishizawa Y, Jono S, Ishimura E, Shioi A. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease. J Ren Nutr 2005; 15: 178-82.
Cancela AL, Santos RD, Titan SM, et al. Phosphorus is associated with coronary artery disease in patients with preserved renal function. PLoS One 2012; 7: e36883.
Louvet L, Buchel J, Steppan S, et al. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014; 28: 869-78.
Houben E, Neradova A, Schurgers LJ, Vervloet M. The influence of phosphate, calcium and magnesium on matrix Gla-protein and vascular calcification a systematic review. G Ital Nefrol 2016; 33: 6.
Lomashvili K, Garg P, O’Neill W. Chemical and hormonal determinants of vascular calcification in vitro. Kidney Int 2006; 69: 1464-70.
Young E, Albert J, Satayathum S, et al. Predictors and consequences of altered mineral metabolism the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 1179-87.
Shanahan C, Weissberg P, Metcalfe J. Isolation of gene markers of differentiated and proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res 1993; 73: 193-204.
Wada T, McKee M, Steitz S, Giachelli C. Calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell cultures inhibition by osteopontin. Circ Res 1999; 84166-78.
Román-García P, Carrillo-López N, Fernández-Martín J, Naves-Díaz M, Ruiz-Torres MP, Cannata-Andía JB. High phosphorus diet induces vascular calcification, a related decrease in bone mass and changes in the aortic gene expression. Bone 2010; 46121-8.
Jimbo R, Shimosawa T. Cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease-FGF23 a key molecule in the cardiovascular disease. Int J Hypertens 2014; 381082.
Moe SM, Chen NX. Mechanisms of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 192: 213-6.
Clevers H. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in development and disease. Cell 2006; 1273: 469-80.
Johnson ML, Kamel MA. The Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2007; 194: 376-82.
Mizobuchi M, Towler D, Iatopolsky E. Vascular calcification the killer of patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 207: 1453-64.
Rong S, Zhao X, Jin X, Chen L, Zhu Y, Yuan W. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease is induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 via a mechanism involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem 2014; 346: 2049-60.
Li X, Yang HY, Giachelli CM. BMP-2 promotes phosphate uptake, phenotypic modulation, and calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 1992; 271-7.
Shroff R, McNair R, Skepper J, Figg N, Schurgers LJ, Deanfield J, et al. Chronic mineral dysregulation promotes vascular smooth muscle cell adaptation and extracellular matrix calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21103-12.
Son B, Kozaki K, Iijima K, et al. Gas6/Axl-PI3K/Akt pathway plays a central role in the effect of statins on inorganic phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 5561-8.
Vanholder R, Massy Z, Argiles A, Spasovski G, Verbeke F, Lameire N, et al. Chronic kidney disease as cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 1048-56.
Ahmed S, O’Neill K, Hood A, et al. Calciphylaxis is associated with hyperphosphatemia and increased osteopontin expression by vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 371267-76.
Otto C, Lind B, Kitzman D, Gersh BJ, Siscovick DS. Association of aortic-valve sclerosis with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the elderly. N Engl J Med 1999; 341142-7.
Toussaint ND. Extracellular matrix calcification in chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2011; 204: 360-8.
Lau WL, Pai A, Moe SM, Giachelli CM. Direct effects of phosphate on vascular cell function. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2011; 281: 105-2.
Zhao YG, Meng FX, Li BW, et al. Gelatinases promote calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells by up-regulating bone morphogenetic protein-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016; 4702: 287-93.
Fukui N, Ikeda Y, Ohnuki T, Miyamoto K. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 in chondrocytes via mRNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation. J Biol Chem 2006; 28137: 27229-41.
Takeda E, Taketani Y, Morita K, et al. Sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1999; 31: 377-81.
Boyer C, Baines A, Beaulieu E, et al. Immunodetection of a type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter in tissues and OK cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 136873-83.
Yao L, Sun YT, Sun W, et al. High phosphorus level leads to aortic calcification via β-catenin in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol 2015; 411: 28-36.
Block G, Raggi P, Bellasi A, Kooienga L, Spiegel D. Mortality effect of coronary calcification and phosphate binder choice in incident hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2007; 71438-41.
Levin A, Bakris G, Molitch M, Garabédian M, Fournier A. Prevalence of abnormal serum vitamin D, PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease results of the study to evaluate early kidney disease. Kidney Int 2007; 7131-8.
Farzaneh-Far A, Shanahan C. Biology of vascular calcification in renal disease. Nephron, Exp Nephrol 2005; 101e: 134-8.
Chavkin NW, Chia JJ, Crouthamel MH, et al. Phosphate uptake-independent signaling functions of the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, PiT-1, in vascular smooth muscle cells. Exp Cell Res 2015; 33: 39-48.
Speer M, Yang H, Brabb T, et al. Smooth muscle cells give rise to osteochondrogenic precursors and chondrocytes in calcifying arteries. Circ Res 2009; 104733-41.
Booth SL. Vitamin K food composition and dietary intakes. Food Nutr Res 2012; 56.
Ferland G, Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH. Vitamin K, Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell 2012; pp. 230-47.
Elder SJ, Haytowitz DB, Howe J, et al. Vitamin K contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the US Diet. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54: 463-7.
Institute of Medicine Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press 2001.
Suttie JW. Vitamin K In Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al. eds Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements 2nd ed London and1 New York Informa Healthcare 2010; 851-60.
Schurgers LJ. Vitamin K key vitamin in controlling vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2013; 83: 782-4.
Sadowski JA, Hood SJ, Dallal GE, Garry PJ. Phylloquinone in plasma from elderly and young adults factors influencing its concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50100-8.
Suttie JW, Vitamin K. In Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 11th ed Baltimore, MD Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2014) 305-316
Jagannath VA, Fedorowicz Z, Thaker V, Chang AB. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 4: CD008482.
Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1256-61.
Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, et al. Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. J Bone Miner Res 2009; 24: 983-91.
Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr 2004; 134: 3100-5.
Gallieni M, Fusaro M. Vitamin K and cardiovascular calcification in CKD is patient supplementation on the horizon? Kidney Int 2014; 86: 232-4.
Westenfeld R, Krueger T, Schlieper G, et al. Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients A randomized trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 59: 186-95.
McCabe K, Booth S, Fu X, et al. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter the susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2013; 83: 835-44.
Krueger T, Westenfeld R, Ketteler M, Schurgers LJ, Floege J. Vitamin K deficiency in CKD patients a modifiable risk factor for vascular calcification? Kidney Int 2009; 76: 18-22.
Schurgers LJ, Barreto DV, Barreto FC, et al. The circulating inactive form of matrix gla protein is a surrogate marker for vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease, A preliminary report. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 568-75.
Price PA, Faus SA, Williamson MK. Warfarin causes rapid calcification of the elastic lamellae in rat arteries and heart valves. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 1400-7.
Detrano R, Guerci AD, Carr JJ, et al. Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in four racial or ethnic groups. N Engl J Med 2008; 35: 1336-45.
Cranenburg EC, Brandenburg VM, Vermeer C, et al. Uncarboxylated matrix gla protein ucMGP is associated with coronary artery calcification in haemodialysis patients. Thromb Haemost 2009; 10: 359-66.
Schurgers LJ, Spronk HM, Skepper JN, et al. Post-translational modifications regulate matrix gla protein function Importance for inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 2503-11.
Zebboudj AF, Imura M, Boström K. Matrix GLA protein, a regulatory protein for bone morphogenetic protein-2. J Biol Chem 2002; 27: 4388-94.
Proudfoot D, Skepper JN, Hegyi L, Bennett MR, Shanahan CM, Weissberg PL. Apoptosis regulates human vascular calcification in vitro evidence for initiation of vascular calcification by apoptotic bodies. Circ Res 2000; 87: 1055-62.
Nishimoto SK, Nishimoto M. Matrix Gla protein C-terminal region binds to vitronectin Co-localization suggests binding occurs during tissue development. Matrix Biol 2005; 24: 353-61.
Holden RM, Sanfilippo AS, Hopman WM, et al. Warfarin and aortic valve calcification in hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol 2007; 20: 417-22.
Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis 2009; 20: 489-93.
Shea MK, O’Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U, et al. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1799-807.
Saito E, Wachi H, Sato F, et al. Treatment with vitamin k2 combined with bisphosphonates synergistically inhibits calcification in cultured smooth muscle cells. J Atheroscler Thromb 2007; 14: 317-24.
Kawashima H, Nakajima Y, Matubara Y, et al. Effects of vitamin K2 menatetrenone on atherosclerosis and blood coagulation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997; 7: 135-43.
Beulens JW, Booth SL, van den Heuvel EG, et al. The role of menaquinones vitamin K2 in human health. Br J Nutr 2013; 11: 1357-68.
Theuwissen E, Cranenburg EC, Knapen MH, et al. Low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation improved extrahepatic vitamin K status, but had no effect on thrombin generation in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 2012; 10: 1652-7.
Olson JC, Edmundowicz D, Becker DJ, Kuller LH, Orchard TJ. Coronary calcium in adults with type 1 diabetes a stronger correlate of clinical coronary artery disease in men than in women. Diabetes 2000; 49: 1571-8.
Basta G, Corciu AI, Vianello A, et al. Circulating soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product levels are decreased in patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis. Atherosclerosis 2010; 2: 614-8.
Thomsen SB, Rathcke CN, Zerahn B, Vestergaard H. Increased levels of the calcification marker matrix Gla Protein and the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2010; 986.
Rennenberg RJ, de Leeuw PW, Kessels AG, et al. Calcium scores and matrix Gla protein levels association with vitamin K status. Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40: 344-9.
Brampton C, Yamaguchi Y, Vanakker O, et al. Vitamin K does not prevent soft tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Cell Cycle 2011; 10: 1810-20.
Bergen AA, Plomp AS, Schuurman EJ, et al. Mutations in ABCC6 cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Nat Genet 2000; 25228-31.
Borst P, van de Wetering K, Schlingemann R. Does the absence of ABCC6 multidrug resistance protein 6 in patients with Pseudoxanthoma elasticum prevent the liver from providing sufficient vitamin K to the periphery? Cell Cycle 2008; 7: 1575-9.
Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Nur Iliyani MI, Mohamed S, Jaarin K. Citrus leaf extract reduces blood pressure and vascular damage in repeatedly heated palm oil diet-Induced hypertensive rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 87: 451-60.
Nurul-Iman BS, Kamisah Y, Jaarin K, Qodriyah HM. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 629329.
Kapustin AN, Shanahan CM. Osteocalcin a novel vascular metabolic and osteoinductive factor? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011; 31: 2169-71.
Danziger J. Vitamin K-dependent proteins, warfarin, and vascular calcification. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 35: 1504-10.
London GM, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, et al. Arterial media calcification in end-stage renal disease: Impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 1731-40.
Erkkilä AT, Booth SL, Hu FB, Jacques PF, Lichtenstein AH. Phylloquinone intake and risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 171: 58-62.
Caluwé R, Pyfferoen L, De Boeck K, De Vriese AS. The effects of vitamin K supplementation and vitamin K antagonists on progression of vascular calcification ongoing randomized controlled trials. Clin Kidney J 2016; 92: 273-9.
Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 197: 504-10.
Braam LA, Hoeks AP, Brouns F, et al. Beneficial effects of vitamins D and K on the elastic properties of the vessel wall in postmenopausal women a follow-up study. Thromb Haemost 2004; 912: 373-80.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Drummen NE, et al. Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women A double-blind randomised clinical trial. Thromb Haemost 2015; 11: 1135-44.
Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 15: 27-32.