Advanced in Silico Methods for the Development of Anti- Leishmaniasis and Anti-Trypanosomiasis Agents

Author(s): Amit Kumar Halder, M. Natália Dias Soeiro Cordeiro*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 5 , 2020

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Abstract:

Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis occur primarily in undeveloped countries and account for millions of deaths and disability-adjusted life years. Limited therapeutic options, high toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and the emergence of drug resistance associated with these diseases demand urgent development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of these dreadful diseases. In the last decades, different in silico methods have been successfully implemented for supporting the lengthy and expensive drug discovery process. In the current review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to in silico analyses towards lead identification, lead modification and target identification of antileishmaniasis and anti-trypanosomiasis agents. We describe recent applications of some important in silico approaches, such as 2D-QSAR, 3D-QSAR, pharmacophore mapping, molecular docking, and so forth, with the aim of understanding the utility of these techniques for the design of novel therapeutic anti-parasitic agents. This review focuses on: (a) advanced computational drug design options; (b) diverse methodologies - e.g.: use of machine learning tools, software solutions, and web-platforms; (c) recent applications and advances in the last five years; (d) experimental validations of in silico predictions; (e) virtual screening tools; and (f) rationale or justification for the selection of these in silico methods.

Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Trypanosomiasis, Drug design, 2D-/3D-Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships QSAR, Machine learning tools, Web-platforms, virtual screening.

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