Novel Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Physiological Functions of L-Homoarginine

Author(s): Seidu Adams*, Dongsheng Che*, Guixin Qin, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Jiang Hailong, Han Rui.

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 20 , Issue 2 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


L-Homoarginine (hArg) ((2S)-amino-6-Carbamimidamidohexanoic acid) is a non-essential cationic amino acid that may be synthesised from the lysine catabolism or the transamination of its precursor (Arginine: Arg). These processes involve the use of the ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), an enzyme from the urea cycle or the arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), an enzyme from the creatine biosynthesis pathway. These enzymes are tissue-specific, hence they synthesised L-hArg in animals and human organs such as the liver, kidneys, brains, and the small intestines. L-hArg plays some important roles in the pathophysiological conditions, endothelial functions, and the energy metabolic processes in different organs. These functions depend on the concentrations of the available LhArg in the body. These different concentrations of the L-hArg in the body are related to the different disease conditions such as the T2D mellitus, the cardiovascular and the cerebrovascular diseases, the chronic kidney diseases, the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and the preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancy disorders, and even mortality. However, the applications of the L-hArg in both human and animal studies is in its juvenile stage, and the mechanism of action in this vital amino acid is not fully substantiated and requires more research attention. Hence, we review the evidence with the perspective of the LhArg usage in the monogastric and human nutrition and its related health implications.

Keywords: L-Homoarginine, nitric oxide, AGAT, OTC, cardiovascular diseases, metabolism.

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Year: 2019
Page: [184 - 193]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1389203719666181026170049
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