Differential Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Body Composition and Adiposity

Author(s): Hadi Emamat, Zahra Yari, Hossein Farhadnejad, Parvin Mirmiran*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 16 , Issue 2 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Recent evidence has highlighted that fat accumulation, particularly abdominal fat distribution, is strongly associated with metabolic disturbance. It is also well-recognized that the metabolic responses to variations in macronutrients intake can affect body composition. Previous studies suggest that the quality of dietary fats can be considered as the main determinant of body-fat deposition, fat distribution, and body composition without altering the total body weight; however, the effects of dietary fats on body composition have controversial results. There is substantial evidence to suggest that saturated fatty acids are more obesogen than unsaturated fatty acids, and with the exception of some isomers like conjugate linoleic acid, most dietary trans fatty acids are adiposity enhancers, but there is no consensus on it yet. On the other hand, there is little evidence to indicate that higher intake of the n-3 and the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can be beneficial in attenuating adiposity, and the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on body composition is contradictory. Accordingly, the content of this review summarizes the current body of knowledge on the potential effects of the different types of dietary fatty acids on body composition and adiposity. It also refers to the putative mechanisms underlying this association and reflects on the controversy of this topic.

Keywords: Adiposity, body composition, conjugated linoleic acid, fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid.

Organization WH. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organization 2000.
Kaess BM, Pedley A, Massaro JM, Murabito J, Hoffmann U, Fox CS. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk. Diabetologia 2012; 55(10): 2622-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-012-2639-5] [PMID: 22898763 ]
Tchernof A, Després J-P. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev 2013; 93(1): 359-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00033.2011] [PMID: 23303913 ]
Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Romero I, et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diabetes Care 2007; 30(7): 1717-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc06-2220] [PMID: 17384344 ]
Kaput J, Rodriguez RL. Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics 2004; 16(2): 166-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00107.2003] [PMID: 14726599 ]
St-Onge MP, Bosarge A. Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87(3): 621-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.3.621] [PMID: 18326600 ]
Vessby B. Dietary fat, fatty acid composition in plasma and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Lipidol 2003; 14(1): 15-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200302000-00004] [PMID: 12544656 ]
Hekmatdoost A, Mirmiran P, Hosseini-Esfahani F, Azizi F. Dietary fatty acid composition and metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults. Nutrition 2011; 27(10): 1002-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.11.004] [PMID: 21907897 ]
Mirmiran P, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Naderi Z, Bahadoran Z, Sadeghi M, Azizi F. Association between interaction and ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and the metabolic syndrome in adults. Nutrition 2012; 28(9): 856-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.031] [PMID: 22459553 ]
Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S. Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 2001; 44(7): 805-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001250100547] [PMID: 11508264 ]
Salmerón J, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73(6): 1019-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/73.6.1019] [PMID: 11382654 ]
Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2008; 233(6): 674-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/0711-MR-311] [PMID: 18408140 ]
Rose DP. Dietary fatty acids and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66(4)(Suppl.): 998S-1003S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/66.4.998S] [PMID: 9322580 ]
Connor WE. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1)(Suppl.): 171S-5S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.1.171S] [PMID: 10617967 ]
Williams CM, Ed. Dietary fatty acids and human health Annales de Zootechnie. EDP Sciences 2000.
Moleres A, Ochoa MC, Rendo-Urteaga T, et al. GENOI. Dietary fatty acid distribution modifies obesity risk linked to the rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in a Spanish case-control study of children. Br J Nutr 2012; 107(4): 533-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511003424] [PMID: 21798115 ]
Trumbo P, Schlicker S, Yates AA, Poos M. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, The National Academies. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102(11): 1621-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90346-9] [PMID: 12449285]
Bjermo H, Iggman D, Kullberg J, et al. Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95(5): 1003-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.030114] [PMID: 22492369 ]
Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Kullberg J, et al. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans. Diabetes 2014; 63(7): 2356-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1622] [PMID: 24550191 ]
Flatt J-P. Use and storage of carbohydrate and fat. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61(4)(Suppl.): 952S-9S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/61.4.952S] [PMID: 7900694 ]
Neville MM, Geppert J, Min Y, Grimble G, Crawford MA, Ghebremeskel K. Dietary fat intake, body composition and blood lipids of university men and women. Nutr Health 2012; 21(3): 173-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106012467242] [PMID: 23533205 ]
Kien CL, Bunn JY. Gender alters the effects of palmitate and oleate on fat oxidation and energy expenditure. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16(1): 29-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.13] [PMID: 18223608 ]
Bes-Rastrollo M, van Dam RM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson LL, Hu FB. Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88(3): 769-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.3.769] [PMID: 18779295]
Savage JS, Marini M, Birch LL. Dietary energy density predicts women’s weight change over 6 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88(3): 677-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.3.677] [PMID: 18779283 ]
Phillips CM, Kesse-Guyot E, McManus R, et al. High dietary saturated fat intake accentuates obesity risk associated with the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in adults. J Nutr 2012; 142(5): 824-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.153460] [PMID: 22457394]
Corella D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, et al. A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI. J Nutr 2011; 141(12): 2219-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.143826] [PMID: 22049296]
Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A, Azizi F. Better dietary adherence and weight maintenance achieved by a long-term moderate-fat diet. Br J Nutr 2007; 97(2): 399-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507328602] [PMID: 17298711 ]
Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Mirmiran P, Fallah-ghohroudi A, Azizi F. Combined effect of unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids on the metabolic syndrome: Tehran lipid and glucose study. J Health Popul Nutr 2015; 33(1): 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41043-015-0015-z] [PMID: 26825310 ]
Raw P. Composition of Foods Raw, Processed, Prepared USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. Documentation and User Guide 2015.
McGuire S. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, January 2011. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 2011; 2(3): 293.: 4.
Disease ITFfPoCH. Pocket guide to prevention of coronary heart disease. 2003.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Expert Panel on Detection E. Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285(19): 2486-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486] [PMID: 11368702 ]
Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. Revision 2000: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. J Nutr 2001; 131(1): 132-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.1.132] [PMID: 11208950 ]
Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, et al. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 2006; 114(1): 82-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176158] [PMID: 16785338 ]
Brunner EJ, Wunsch H, Marmot MG. What is an optimal diet? Relationship of macronutrient intake to obesity, glucose tolerance, lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the metabolic syndrome in the Whitehall II study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25(1): 45-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801543] [PMID: 11244457]
Doucet E, Alméras N, White MD, Després JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Dietary fat composition and human adiposity. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52(1): 2-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600500] [PMID: 9481524 ]
Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, James AP, Mamo JC, Clifton PM. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006; 3: 7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-3-7] [PMID: 16403234]
Bray GA, Krauss RM. Overfeeding of polyunsaturated versus saturated fatty acids reduces ectopic fat. Diabetes 2014; 63(7): 2222-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db14-0493] [PMID: 24962923 ]
Wang CC, Adochio RL, Leitner JW, Abeyta IM, Draznin B, Cornier MA. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction. Metabolism 2013; 62(4): 595-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2012.10.010] [PMID: 23174405 ]
Perfilyev A, Dahlman I, Gillberg L, et al. Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 105(4): 991-1000.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.143164] [PMID: 28275132 ]
von Frankenberg AD, Marina A, Song X, Callahan HS, Kratz M, Utzschneider KM. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults. Eur J Nutr 2017; 56(1): 431-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1108-6] [PMID: 26615402 ]
Summers LK, Fielding BA, Bradshaw HA, et al. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia 2002; 45(3): 369-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-001-0768-3] [PMID: 11914742 ]
Piers LS, Walker KZ, Stoney RM, Soares MJ, O’Dea K. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men. Br J Nutr 2003; 90(3): 717-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003948] [PMID: 13129479]
Phillips CM, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, et al. Dietary saturated fat modulates the association between STAT3 polymorphisms and abdominal obesity in adults. J Nutr 2009; 139(11): 2011-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.110635] [PMID: 19776189 ]
Piers LS, Walker KZ, Stoney RM, Soares MJ, O’Dea K. The influence of the type of dietary fat on postprandial fat oxidation rates: monounsaturated (olive oil) vs saturated fat (cream). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26(6): 814-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801993] [PMID: 12037652 ]
Storlien LH, Tapsell LC, Fraser A, et al. Insulin resistance In: Simopoulos AP, Pavlou KN, Eds Nutrition and Fitness: Metabolic Studies in Health and Disease World Rev Nutr Diet Karger: Basel 2001; Vol 9, pp 26-43
Larqué E, Zamora S, Gil A. Dietary trans fatty acids in early life: a review. Early Hum Dev 2001; 65(Suppl.): S31-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3782(01)00201-8] [PMID: 11755033]
Mozaffarian D, Abdollahi M, Campos H, Houshiarrad A, Willett WC. Consumption of trans fats and estimated effects on coronary heart disease in Iran. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61(8): 1004-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602608] [PMID: 17268422 ]
Craig-Schmidt MC. World-wide consumption of trans fatty acids. Atheroscler Suppl 2006; 7(2): 1-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2006.04.001] [PMID: 16713396 ]
Kris-Etherton PM, Innis S, Ammerican Dietetic A, et al. Ammerican Dietetic Assocition; Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: dietary fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107(9): 1599-611.
[PMID: 17936958]
Yamada M, Sasaki S, Murakami K, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K. Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. Association of trans fatty acid intake with metabolic risk factors among free-living young Japanese women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2009; 18(3): 359-71.
[PMID: 19786384 ]
Ghosh A. Comparison of anthropometric, metabolic and dietary fatty acids profiles in lean and obese dyslipidaemic Asian Indian male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61(3): 412-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602534] [PMID: 17006446 ]
Koh-Banerjee P, Chu N-F, Spiegelman D, et al. Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(4): 719-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.4.719] [PMID: 14522729 ]
Anderson AK, McDougald DM, Steiner-Asiedu M. Dietary trans fatty acid intake and maternal and infant adiposity. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010; 64(11): 1308-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2010.166] [PMID: 20823901 ]
Bendsen NT, Chabanova E, Thomsen HS, et al. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women. Nutr Diabetes 2011; 1e4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nutd.2010.4] [PMID: 23154296 ]
Smit LA, Willett WC, Campos H. trans-fatty acid isomers in adipose tissue have divergent associations with adiposity in humans. Lipids 2010; 45(8): 693-700.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-010-3442-z] [PMID: 20628829 ]
Micha R, Mozaffarian D. Trans fatty acids: effects on cardiometabolic health and implications for policy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79(3-5): 147-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2008.09.008] [PMID: 18996687 ]
Gebauer SK, Psota TL, Kris-Etherton PM. The diversity of health effects of individual trans fatty acid isomers. Lipids 2007; 42(9): 787-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3095-8] [PMID: 17694343 ]
Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85(5): 1203-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.5.1203] [PMID: 17490954 ]
Joseph SV, Jacques H, Plourde M, Mitchell PL, McLeod RS, Jones PJ. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. J Nutr 2011; 141(7): 1286-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.135087] [PMID: 21593349 ]
Gaullier JM, Halse J, Høivik HO, et al. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. Br J Nutr 2007; 97(3): 550-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507381324] [PMID: 17313718 ]
Pan A, Chen M, Chowdhury R, et al. α-linolenic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 96(6): 1262-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.044040] [PMID: 23076616 ]
Raff M, Tholstrup T, Toubro S, et al. Conjugated linoleic acids reduce body fat in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2009; 139(7): 1347-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.104471] [PMID: 19494028 ]
Zambell KL, Keim NL, Van Loan MD, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on body composition and energy expenditure. Lipids 2000; 35(7): 777-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-000-0585-z] [PMID: 10941879]
Sneddon AA, Tsofliou F, Fyfe CL, et al. Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid mixture on body composition and adiponectin. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16(5): 1019-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.41] [PMID: 18356842 ]
Terpstra AH. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition and plasma lipids in humans: an overview of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(3): 352-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.3.352] [PMID: 14985207 ]
Steck SE, Chalecki AM, Miller P, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr 2007; 137(5): 1188-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.5.1188] [PMID: 17449580 ]
Gaullier JM, Halse J, Høye K, et al. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr 2005; 135(4): 778-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.4.778] [PMID: 15795434 ]
Norris LE, Collene AL, Asp ML, et al. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90(3): 468-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27371] [PMID: 19535429 ]
Mądry E, Chudzicka-Strugała I, Grabańska-Martyńska K, et al. Twelve weeks CLA supplementation decreases the hip circumference in overweight and obese women. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2016; 15(1): 107-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2016.1.11] [PMID: 28071044 ]
Risérus U, Berglund L, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25(8): 1129-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801659] [PMID: 11477497 ]
Taylor JS, Williams SR, Rhys R, James P, Frenneaux MP. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26(2): 307-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000199679.40501.ac] [PMID: 16339498 ]
Mougios V, Matsakas A, Petridou A, et al. Effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on human serum lipids and body fat. J Nutr Biochem 2001; 12(10): 585-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(01)00177-2] [PMID: 12031264 ]
Laso N, Brugué E, Vidal J, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr 2007; 98(4): 860-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507750882] [PMID: 17623486 ]
López-Plaza B, Bermejo LM, Koester Weber T, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people. Nutr Hosp 2013; 28(6): 2090-8.
[PMID: 24506387]
Venkatramanan S, Joseph SV, Chouinard PY, Jacques H, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ. Milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid fails to alter blood lipids or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individuals. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29(2): 152-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2010.10719829] [PMID: 20679151 ]
Malpuech-Brugère C, Verboeket-van de Venne WP, Mensink RP, et al. Effects of two conjugated linoleic Acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res 2004; 12(4): 591-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.68] [PMID: 15090626]
Desroches S, Chouinard PY, Galibois I, et al. Lack of effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids naturally incorporated into butter on the lipid profile and body composition of overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(2): 309-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.2.309] [PMID: 16087973 ]
Lehnen TE, da Silva MR, Camacho A, Marcadenti A, Lehnen AM. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2015; 12: 36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0097-4] [PMID: 26388708 ]
Kreider RB, Ferreira MP, Greenwood M, Wilson M, Almada AL. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training on body composition, bone density, strength, and selected hematological markers. J Strength Cond Res 2002; 16(3): 325-34.
[PMID: 12173945 ]
Lambert EV, Goedecke JH, Bluett K, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals. Br J Nutr 2007; 97(5): 1001-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507172822] [PMID: 17381964 ]
Ribeiro AS, Pina FL, Dodero SR, et al. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2016; 26(2): 135-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0236] [PMID: 26402730 ]
Kamphuis MM, Lejeune MP, Saris WH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27(7): 840-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802304] [PMID: 12821971 ]
Racine NM, Watras AC, Carrel AL, et al. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91(5): 1157-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28404] [PMID: 20200257 ]
Wang Y, Jones PJ. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(6)(Suppl.): 1153S-8S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1153S] [PMID: 15159250 ]
Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr 2000; 130(12): 2943-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.12.2943] [PMID: 11110851]
Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki PP, Watson LK, Davies LA, Ernst E. The efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr 2012; 51(2): 127-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0253-9] [PMID: 21990002 ]
Park Y, Pariza MW. Mechanisms of body fat modulation by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Food Res Int 2007; 40(3): 311-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.11.002] [PMID: ]
Mashek DG, Wu C. MUFAs. Adv Nutr 2015; 6(3): 276-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.114.005926] [PMID: 25979493]
Aller R, de Luis DA, Izaola O, de la Fuente B, Bachiller R. Effect of a high monounsaturated vs high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014; 18(7): 1041-7.
[PMID: 24763885 ]
Due A, Larsen TM, Hermansen K, et al. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87(4): 855-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.4.855] [PMID: 18400707 ]
Brunerova L, Smejkalova V, Potockova J, Andel M. A comparison of the influence of a high-fat diet enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids and conventional diet on weight loss and metabolic parameters in obese non-diabetic and Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2007; 24(5): 533-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02104.x] [PMID: 17381504 ]
Clifton PM, Noakes M, Keogh JB. Very low-fat (12%) and high monounsaturated fat (35%) diets do not differentially affect abdominal fat loss in overweight, nondiabetic women. J Nutr 2004; 134(7): 1741-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.7.1741] [PMID: 15226463 ]
St-Onge MP, Ross R, Parsons WD, Jones PJ. Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men. Obes Res 2003; 11(3): 395-402.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.53] [PMID: 12634436 ]
Schwingshackl L, Strasser B, Hoffmann G. Effects of monounsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Nutr Metab 2011; 59(2-4): 176-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000334071] [PMID: 22142965 ]
Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Champagne CM, et al. Effects of diets enriched in saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic), or trans (elaidic) fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation in healthy adults. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(8): 1283-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.8.1283] [PMID: 12145222 ]
DeLany JP, Windhauser MM, Champagne CM, Bray GA. Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72(4): 905-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.4.905] [PMID: 11010930 ]
Saito S, Fukuhara I, Osaki N, Nakamura H, Katsuragi Y. Consumption of alpha-linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol reduces visceral fat area in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized, double-blind controlled, parallel-group designed trial. J Oleo Sci 2016; 65(7): 603-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess16059] [PMID: 27321122 ]
Mansoori A, Sotoudeh G, Djalali M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil supplementation improves body composition without influence of the pparγ pro12ala polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2015; 8(4-6): 195-204.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000442792] [PMID: 26836268 ]
Sato T, Kameyama T, Ohori T, Matsuki A, Inoue H. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on epicardial and abdominal visceral adipose tissue volumes in patients with coronary artery disease. J Atheroscler Thromb 2014; 21(10): 1031-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.23390] [PMID: 24834906 ]
Azizi-Soleiman F, Jazayeri S, Eghtesadi S, et al. Effects of pure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on oxidative stress, inflammation and body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Prev Med 2013; 4(8): 922-8.
[PMID: 24049619 ]
Noreen EE, Sass MJ, Crowe ML, Pabon VA, Brandauer J, Averill LK. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7: 31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-7-31] [PMID: 20932294 ]
Crochemore IC, Souza AF, de Souza AC, Rosado EL. ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation does not influence body composition, insulin resistance, and lipemia in women with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Nutr Clin Pract 2012; 27(4): 553-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0884533612444535] [PMID: 22661243 ]
Munro IA, Garg ML. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy diet. Br J Nutr 2012; 108(8): 1466-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511006817] [PMID: 22214842 ]
Meyer BJ, Mann NJ, Lewis JL, Milligan GC, Sinclair AJ, Howe PR. Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 2003; 38(4): 391-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-003-1074-0] [PMID: 12848284 ]
Sanders TA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1)(Suppl.): 176S-8S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.1.176s] [PMID: 10617968 ]
Gebauer SK, Psota TL, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM. n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6)(Suppl.): 1526S-35S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1526S] [PMID: 16841863 ]
Kris-Etherton PM, Taylor DS, Yu-Poth S, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1)(Suppl.): 179S-88S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.1.179S] [PMID: 10617969 ]
Zello GA. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2006; 31(1): 74-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/h05-022] [PMID: 16604146 ]
Russo GL. Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 77(6): 937-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2008.10.020] [PMID: 19022225 ]
Perng W, Villamor E, Mora-Plazas M, Marin C, Baylin A. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is inversely related to development of adiposity in school-age children. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015; 69(2): 167-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2014.210] [PMID: 25271016 ]
Stark AH, Crawford MA, Reifen R. Update on alpha-linolenic acid. Nutr Rev 2008; 66(6): 326-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00040.x] [PMID: 18522621 ]
Javadi M, Geelen MJ, Lemmens AG, et al. The influence of dietary linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid on body composition and the activities of key enzymes of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in mice. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2007; 91(1-2): 11-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2006.00636.x] [PMID: 17217386 ]
Chicco AG, D’Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, Oliva ME, Lombardo YB. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats. Br J Nutr 2009; 101(1): 41-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711450899053X] [PMID: 18492301 ]
Ide T. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the activity and gene expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Biofactors 2000; 13(1-4): 9-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520130103] [PMID: 11237206 ]
Murase T, Nagasawa A, Suzuki J, Wakisaka T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid-rich diacylglycerols reduce body weight gain accompanying the stimulation of intestinal beta-oxidation and related gene expressions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Nutr 2002; 132(10): 3018-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.10.3018] [PMID: 12368389 ]
Horrocks LA, Yeo YK. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pharmacol Res 1999; 40(3): 211-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/phrs.1999.0495] [PMID: 10479465 ]
Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Adv Food Nutr Res 2012; 65: 211-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-416003-3.00013-5] [PMID: 22361189]
Buckley JD, Howe PR. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be beneficial for reducing obesity-a review. Nutrients 2010; 2(12): 1212-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu2121212] [PMID: 22254005 ]
Buckley JD, Howe PR. Anti-obesity effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Obes Rev 2009; 10(6): 648-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00584.x] [PMID: 19460115 ]
Bender N, Portmann M, Heg Z, Hofmann K, Zwahlen M, Egger M. Fish or n3-PUFA intake and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2014; 15(8): 657-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12189] [PMID: 24891155 ]
Rustan AC, Nossen JO, Christiansen EN, Drevon CA. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces hepatic synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol by decreasing the activity of acyl-coenzyme A:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase. J Lipid Res 1988; 29(11): 1417-26.
[PMID: 2853717 ]
Murphy RA, Yeung E, Mazurak VC, Mourtzakis M. Influence of eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on lean body mass in cancer cachexia. Br J Cancer 2011; 105(10): 1469-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.391] [PMID: 21970879]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [142 - 154]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1573401314666181010100002
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 11