Differential Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Body Composition and Adiposity

Author(s): Hadi Emamat, Zahra Yari, Hossein Farhadnejad, Parvin Mirmiran*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 16 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Recent evidence has highlighted that fat accumulation, particularly abdominal fat distribution, is strongly associated with metabolic disturbance. It is also well-recognized that the metabolic responses to variations in macronutrients intake can affect body composition. Previous studies suggest that the quality of dietary fats can be considered as the main determinant of body-fat deposition, fat distribution, and body composition without altering the total body weight; however, the effects of dietary fats on body composition have controversial results. There is substantial evidence to suggest that saturated fatty acids are more obesogen than unsaturated fatty acids, and with the exception of some isomers like conjugate linoleic acid, most dietary trans fatty acids are adiposity enhancers, but there is no consensus on it yet. On the other hand, there is little evidence to indicate that higher intake of the n-3 and the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can be beneficial in attenuating adiposity, and the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on body composition is contradictory. Accordingly, the content of this review summarizes the current body of knowledge on the potential effects of the different types of dietary fatty acids on body composition and adiposity. It also refers to the putative mechanisms underlying this association and reflects on the controversy of this topic.

Keywords: Adiposity, body composition, conjugated linoleic acid, fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid.

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