Sam Domains in Multiple Diseases

Author(s): Marian Vincenzi, Flavia Anna Mercurio, Marilisa Leone*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 3 , 2020

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Abstract:

Background: The sterile alpha motif (Sam) domain is a small helical protein module, able to undergo homo- and hetero-oligomerization, as well as polymerization, thus forming different types of protein architectures. A few Sam domains are involved in pathological processes and consequently, they represent valuable targets for the development of new potential therapeutic routes. This study intends to collect state-of-the-art knowledge on the different modes by which Sam domains can favor disease onset and progression.

Methods: This review was build up by searching throughout the literature, for: a) the structural properties of Sam domains, b) interactions mediated by a Sam module, c) presence of a Sam domain in proteins relevant for a specific disease.

Results: Sam domains appear crucial in many diseases including cancer, renal disorders, cataracts. Often pathologies are linked to mutations directly positioned in the Sam domains that alter their stability and/or affect interactions that are crucial for proper protein functions. In only a few diseases, the Sam motif plays a kind of "side role" and cooperates to the pathological event by enhancing the action of a different protein domain.

Conclusion: Considering the many roles of the Sam domain into a significant variety of diseases, more efforts and novel drug discovery campaigns need to be engaged to find out small molecules and/or peptides targeting Sam domains. Such compounds may represent the pillars on which to build novel therapeutic strategies to cure different pathologies.

Keywords: Sam domains, drug discovery, structural biology, protein-protein interactions, diseases, therapeutic routes

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VOLUME: 27
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