Cubilin, the Intrinsic Factor-Vitamin B12 Receptor in Development and Disease

Author(s): Renata Kozyraki*, Olivier Cases

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 19 , 2020


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Abstract:

Gp280/Intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor/Cubilin (CUBN) is a large endocytic receptor serving multiple functions in vitamin B12 homeostasis, renal reabsorption of protein or toxic substances including albumin, vitamin D-binding protein or cadmium. Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein consisting of 8 Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like repeats and 27 CUB (defined as Complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, BMP1) domains. This structurally unique protein interacts with at least two molecular partners, Amnionless (AMN) and Lrp2/Megalin. AMN is involved in appropriate plasma membrane transport of Cubilin whereas Lrp2 is essential for efficient internalization of Cubilin and its ligands. Observations gleaned from animal models with Cubn deficiency or human diseases demonstrate the importance of this protein. In this review addressed to basic research and medical scientists, we summarize currently available data on Cubilin and its implication in renal and intestinal biology. We also discuss the role of Cubilin as a modulator of Fgf8 signaling during embryonic development and propose that the Cubilin-Fgf8 interaction may be relevant in human pathology, including in cancer progression, heart or neural tube defects. We finally provide experimental elements suggesting that some aspects of Cubilin physiology might be relevant in drug design.

Keywords: Vitamin B12, cubilin, amnionless, megalin, Lrp2, cobalamin.

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