ATC/DDD Directed Classification of Neural Ayurvedic Medicines

Author(s): Malika Arora, Manpreet Kaur, Parveen Bansal*, Manish Arora

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 5 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Introduction: People have been using herbs for health care since Vedic times. Due to resurgence of ayurveda, utilization and consumption of herbal medicines is tremendously increasing leading to a significant percentage of the pharmaceutical market. The huge commercial benefits of herbal products are capturing the interest of pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Hence the safety and quality of medicinal plant materials and finished herbal medicinal products have become a major concern for health authorities, pharmaceutical industries as well as to the public. Presently, plenty of clinical trials are being conducted on herbal medicines; however, absence of harmonized classification has led to various confusions. The most important concern is the disputed identity of ayurvedic formulations sold under different brand names in different regions of the country and world. Recently, allopathic medicines have been classified by WHO on the basis of ATC/DDD (Anatomical- Therapeutic-Chemical/Daily Defined Dose) pattern of classification. The absence of such type of classification for ayurvedic products creates a situation of non recognition of these products in the international market. Hence there is a need to develop a classification system that is on the lines of ATC/DDD so that particular herb may qualify a product to be recognised under one name all over the world.

Materials and Methods: Keeping in view the above scenario, a classification system is being proposed for ayurvedic products. The ayurvedic formulations and their site of action have been searched from various Ayurvedic texts. Internet sources such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, JSTOR etc.

Results: The major reason for adopting similar classification for herbal medicines is that ayurvedic texts given by various scholars are published in Sanskrit or in the local/regional languages which make it difficult for the researchers to access, understand and interpret the knowledge shared.

Conclusion: It is utmost important to generate such classification for herbal medicines as it will generate a classification data which can further be exploited for safety, efficacy as well as quality control purposes. Moreover, innovative classification will be helpful to provide standardized as well as a uniform way to classify the various herbal drugs and to generate new avenues for further ayurvedic research with more degree of precision. The classification will enable a product to be known under one banner/name at international level. Since the market is flooded with formulations related with neural disorders, hence herbal products used in neural disorders have been taken in the first phase.

Keywords: Ayurveda, ATC/DDD, neural disorders, samhita, traditional medicines, vedic times.

[1]
Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Indian traditional ayurvedic system of medicine and nutritional supplementation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013: 1-12.
[2]
Farnsworth NR, Morris RW. Higher plants-the sleeping giant of drug development. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1975; 148(2): 46-52.
[3]
Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM. Natural products in drug discovery and development. J Nat Prod 1997; 60(1): 52-60.
[4]
Lahiri N, Singh U. Ancient India: New research. Oxford University 2010.
[5]
Hogerzeil HV, Policy A. Essential medicines and health products information portal a world health organization resource available on WHO. Drug Information 2002; 16(3): 302-11.
[6]
Sharma AK, Kumar R, Mishra A, et al. Problems associated with clinical trials of ayurvedic medicines. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2010; 20(2): 276-81.
[7]
Akhter S. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of different fractions of Lannea grandis Engl (Family: Anacardiaceae) 2012.
[8]
Arora M, Baldi A. Good manufacturing practice regulations for probiotic based pharmaceuticals: Current scenario and suggestive recommendations. Appl Clin Res Clin Trials Regul Aff 2015; 2(3): 165-75.
[9]
Chander A, Sunder M. The romance of the public domain. Cal L Rev 2004; 1331-73.
[10]
Rønning M, Salvesen Blix H, Harbø TB, et al. Different versions of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system and the defined daily dose-are drug utilisation data comparable. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 56(9): 723-7.
[11]
World Health Organization. Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment. In: Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment. 1996.WHO.
[12]
Farah MH, Olsson S, Bate J, et al. Botanical nomenclature in pharmacovigilance and a recommendation for standardisation. Drug Saf 2006; 29(11): 1023-9.
[13]
Mazars G. A concise introduction to Indian medicine. Motilal Banarsidass 2006; 12(115): 16-8.
[14]
Tripathi B, Samhita C. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Subharti 7th edn. 8: 115-767.
[15]
World Health Organization. Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment. In: Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment. 1996.WHO.
[16]
Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vijnana Vol. II. Chaukhambha Bharati 1986; 16: 22-5.
[17]
Ronning M, Blix SH, Harbo TB, et al. Different versions of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system and the defined daily dose-are drug utilisation data comparable. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56(9): 723-7.
[18]
Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of bacopa monniera Linn. (Brāhmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1982; 5(2): 205-14.
[19]
Shukia B, Khanna NK, Godhwani JL. Effect of brahmi rasayan on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol 1987; 21(1): 65-74.
[20]
Prakash JC, Sirsi M. Comparative study of the effects of brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and chlorpromazine on motor learning in rats. J Sci Ind Res 1962; 1(14): 93-6.
[21]
Sharma R, Jaiswal AN, Kumar S, et al. Aromatic Plant Abst J Res Edu India Med 1985; 16(2): 35-6.
[22]
Sethiya NK, Nahata A, Mishra SH, et al. An update on shankhpushpi, a cognition-boosting. Ayurvedic Med 2009; 7(11): 1001-22.
[23]
Austin DF. Evolvulus alsinoides (convolvulaceae): An American herb old. World J Ethnopharmaco 2008; 117(2): 185-98.
[24]
Dubey NK, Kumar R, Tripathi P. Global promotion of herbal medicine: India’s opportunity. Curr Sci 2004; 86(1): 37-41.
[25]
Gupta AK. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants. Volume 1.. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants Volume 12003;
[26]
Ansari JZ, Haq A, Yousaf M, et al. Evaluation of different medicinal plants as growth promoters for broiler chicks. Sarhad J Agric 2008; 24(2): 323-30.
[27]
Dhingra D, Parle M, Kulkarni SK. Memory enhancing activity of glycyrrhiza glabra in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 91(2): 361-5.
[28]
Cui YM, Ao MZ, Li W, et al. Effect of glabridin from glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory in mice. Planta Med 2008; 74(04): 377-80.
[29]
Gupta A, Karchuli SM, Upmanyu N. Comparative evaluation of ethanolic extracts of bacopa monnieri, evolvulus alsinoides, Tinospora cordifolia and their combinations on cognitive functions in rats. Curr Aging Sci 2013; 6(3): 239-43.
[30]
Singh J, Sinha K, Sharma A, et al. Traditional uses of tinospora cordifolia (guduchi). J Med Aromat Plant Sci 2003; 25: 748-51.
[31]
Kosaraju J, Chinni S, Roy PD, et al. Neuroprotective effect of tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced parkinsonism. Int J Pharmacol 2014; 46(2): 176.
[32]
Dhingra D, Goyal PK. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of tinospora cordifolia in mice. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008; 70(6): 761.
[33]
Kitada Y, Miyauchi T, Kanazawa Y, et al. Involvement of α-and β 1-adrenergic mechanisms in the immobility-reducing action of desipramine in the forced swimming test. Neuropharm 1983; 22(9): 1055-60.
[34]
Leshchinskaia I, Makarchuk NM, Lebeda AF, et al. Effect of phytoncides on the dynamics of the cerebral circulation in flight controllers during their occupational activity. Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med 1982; 17(2): 80-3.
[35]
Merlin MD. Cover article: Archaeological evidence for the tradition of psychoactive plant use in the old world. Econ Bot 2003; 57(3): 295-323.
[36]
Chalise U. The poppy plant: Phytochemistry & pharmacology. Indo Global J Pharm Sci 2015; 5(1): 58-65.
[37]
Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Basic Clin Pharmacol. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical 2011.
[39]
Sharma AK. Medicinal properties of bala (sida cordifolia linn. and its species) Int J Ayur Pharm Res 2015; 1(2)
[40]
Vakili B, Karimi F, Sharifi M, et al. Chromium-induced tropane alkaloid production and H6H gene expression in Atropa belladonna L.(solanaceae) in vitro-propagated plantlets. Plant Physiol Biochem 2012; 52: 98-103.
[42]
Purnima BM, Kothiyal P. A review article on phytochemistry and pharmacological profiles of nardost-achys jatamansi dc-medicinal herb. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015; 3(5): 102-6.
[43]
Venkateshwar RG, Annamalai T, Mukhopadhyay T. Nardal: A new sesquiterpene aldehyde form the plant of N. jatamansi. Indian J Chem 2008; 47: 163-5.
[44]
Bates B, Ragheb A, Fearnot N, et al. Inventors; Cook incorporated, med institute, inc., assigneeCoated implantable medical device. US patent application US 11/410,354. 2006.
[45]
Olson K. 40. Calcium channel antagonists Poisoning & drug overdose. 2011.
[46]
Isharwal S, Gupta S. Rustom Jal Vakil. Heart 2006; 5: 6.
[47]
Bates BL, Ragheb AO, Fearnot NE, et al. Voorhees III WD, inventors; Cook Medical Technologies Llc, assignee Methods for making implantable medical devices 206. 2015.
[48]
Sagi S, Avula B, Wang YH, et al. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of rauwolfia serpentina using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 2016; 408(1): 177-90.
[49]
Srivastava P, Shanker K. Pluchea lanceolata (rasana): chemical and biological potential of rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine. Fitoterapia 2012; 83(8): 1371-85.
[50]
Bachhav RS, Buchake VV, Saudagar RB. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of anthocephalus cadamba roxb. leaves in wistar rats. Res J Pharm Tech 2009; 2(1): 164-7.
[51]
Pant K, Agarwal K, Saini P. To study in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of anthracephalus cadamba leaves extract. DHR Int J Pharma Sci 2012; 3: 55-60.
[52]
Mondal S, Dash GK, Acharyya S. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies of neolamarckia cadamba barks. J Pharm Res 2009; 2(6): 1133-6.
[53]
Chauhan NS. Medicinal and aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh. Indus 1999.
[54]
Uniyal SK, Singh KN, Jamwal, et al. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of chhota bhangal, western himalaya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006; 2(1): 14.
[56]
Thor KB, Muhlhauser MA, Sauerberg P, et al. Central muscarinic inhibition of lower urinary tract nociception. Brain Res 2000; 870(1): 126-34.
[57]
Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee-a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2003; 10(1): 3-7.
[58]
Kimura I, Yoshikawa M, Kobayashi S, et al. New triterpenes, myrrhanol A and myrrhanone A, from guggul-gum resins, and their potent anti-inflammatory effect on adjuvant-induced air-pouch granuloma of mice. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2001; 11(8): 985-9.
[59]
Khan S, Dwivedi C, Parmar V, et al. Methanol extract of dried exudate of commiphora mukul prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats. Pharm Biol 2012; 50(10): 1330-6.
[61]
Williamson EM. Major herbs of Ayurveda. Churchill Livingstone 2002.
[62]
Lomash V, Parihar SK, Jain NK, et al. Effect of solanum nigrum and ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin. Cell Mol Biol 2009; 56: OL1239-51.
[63]
Srivastava P, Gupta J, et al. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of ricinus communis. Nat Prod Res 2014; 28(5): 306-11.
[64]
De S, Ravishankar B, Bhavsar GC. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Paederia foetida. J Ethnopharmacol 1994; 43(1): 31-8.
[65]
Mathela CS, Tiwari M, Sammal SS, et al. Valeriana wallichii DC, a new chemotype from northwestern himalaya. J Essent Oil Res 2005; 17(6): 672-5.
[66]
Khuda F, Iqbal Z, Khan A, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of the topical preparation of valeriana wallichii and achyranthes aspera leaves. Pak J Pharm Sci 2013; 26(3)
[67]
Sharma AK. Medicinal properties of bala (sida cordifolia linn. and its species) Int J Ayur Pharm Res 2015; 1(2)
[68]
Moon J, Do HJ, Kim OY, et al. Antiobesity effects of quercetin-rich onion peel extract on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the adipogenesis in high fat-fed rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 58: 347-54.
[69]
Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. Garlic: A review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed 2014; 4(1): 1-4.
[70]
Jayanthi MK, Jyoti M. Experimental animal studies on analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of allium sativum (Garlic) powder. Int J Res Med Sci 2012; 2: 1-5.
[71]
Hedaya R. Five herbs plus thiamine reduce pain and improve functional mobility in patients with pain: A pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med 2017; 23(1): 14.
[72]
Shinde UA, Phadke AS, Nair AM, et al. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. wood oil. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 65(1): 21-7.
[73]
Mitra S, Shukla VJ, Acharya R. Effect of purificatory measures through cow’s urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of kupeelu (strychnos nuxvomica linn.) seeds. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2012; 9(1): 105-11.
[74]
Nawaz HR, Malik A, Khan PM, et al. A novel β-glucuronidase inhibiting triterpenoid from paeonia emodi. Chem Pharm Bull 2000; 48(11): 1771-3.
[75]
Riaz N, Anis I, Malik A, Ahmed Z, et al. Paeonins A and B, lipoxygenase inhibiting monoterpene galactosides from Paeonia emodi. Chem Pharm Bull 2003; 51(3): 252-4.
[76]
Muceniece R, Saleniece K, Rumaks J, et al. Betulin binds to γ-aminobutyric acid receptors and exerts anticonvulsant action in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2008; 90(4): 712-6.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 5
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [126 - 137]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2215083804666181002093557
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 17
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1