A Systematic Review on Anti-diabetic Properties of Chalcones

Author(s): Sonia Rocha, Daniela Ribeiro, Eduarda Fernandes*, Marisa Freitas*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 14 , 2020

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Abstract:

The use of anti-diabetic drugs has been increasing worldwide and the evolution of therapeutics has been enormous. Still, the currently available anti-diabetic drugs do not present the desired efficacy and are generally associated with serious adverse effects. Thus, entirely new interventions, addressing the underlying etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are required. Chalcones, secondary metabolites of terrestrial plants and precursors of the flavonoids biosynthesis, have been used for a long time in traditional medicine due to their wide-range of biological activities, from which the anti-diabetic activity stands out.

This review systematizes the information found in literature about the anti-diabetic properties of chalcones, in vitro and in vivo. Chalcones are able to exert these properties by acting in different therapeutic targets: Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4); Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4), Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Aldose Reductase (ALR), Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK). Chalcones are, undoubtedly, promising anti-diabetic agents, and some crucial structural features have already been established. From the Structure-Activity Relationships analysis, it can generally be stated that the presence of hydroxyl, prenyl and geranyl groups in their skeleton improves their activity for the evaluated anti-diabetic targets.

Keywords: Anti-diabetic drugs, chalcones, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4), Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4), Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Aldose Reductase (ALR), Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ), Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), Structure-activity Relationship (SAR).

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