Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanofoam on ZnO Nanowire for Hydrogen Gas Detection

Author(s): Paromita Chowdhury, Sunipa Roy*, Nabaneeta Banerjee, Kuheli Dutta, Utpal Gangopadhaya, Utpal Biswas

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: ZnO nanofoam cluster was deposited on ZnO nanowires using SiO2/Si substrate. Nanocrystalline ZnO nanofoam cluster was grown on Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) grown ZnO nanowires by consecutive immersion (50 times) of the sample into Sodium Zincate (Na2ZnO2) bath (0.125M) kept at room temperature and into the de-ionized (DI) water maintained at 80oC.

Methods: Sodium Zincate was prepared by reacting Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) and excess Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) in aqueous solution. By simple Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique ZnO nanowires of length of 1-1.5 µm with diameter 2-3 nm were deposited on SiO2 coated <100> p-Si substrate. The ZnO nanofoam cluster area was found to be ~(0.5 x 0.5) µm2. After structural and morphological characterizations by FESEM, EDX and AFM, the sensor was tested for three different H2 concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) taking N2 as carrier gas at four different operating temperatures (50ºC, 75ºC, 100ºC and 125ºC).

Results: The sensor offered ~98% response magnitude at very low operating temperature 100ºC at 1000 ppm H2 gas with very fast response time (16 sec) and recovery time (52 sec). The unique structure of nanofoam covers multidimensional area having more molecular surface interactions thus permitting better response in gas sensing. The I-V characteristics was studied to indicate ohmic nature of the silver contacts for four operating temperatures with 1% hydrogen in N2 and it was also observed that amplitude of current is higher with the presence of H2.

Conclusion: Finally the stability study of the H2 sensor was also done in presence of carrier gas (N2) over a span of 24 hours (6 hr daily).

Keywords: ZnO nanofoam, ZnO nanowire, chemical bath deposition, H2 sensing, I-V characteristics, stability.

Lupan, O.; Chai, G.; Chow, L. Novel hydrogen gas sensor based on single ZnO nanorod. Microelectron. Eng., 2008, 85, 2220-2225.
Zaidi, Q.G.A.; Suhail, A.M.; Zzawi, R.A. Palladium – Doped ZnO thin film hydrogen gas sensor. Appl. Phys. Rev., 2011, 3, 89-99.
Wang, H.T.B.; Kang, S.; Ren, F.; Tien, L.C.; Sadik, P.W.; Norton, D.P.; Pearton, S.J.; Lin, J. Hydrogen-selective sensing at room temperature with ZnO nanorods. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2005, 86243503
Tien, L.C.; Sadik, P.W.; Norton, D.P.; Voss, L.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Wang, H.T.; Kang, B.S.; Ren, F.; Jun, J.; Lin, J. Hydrogen sensing at room temperature with Pt-coated ZnO thin films and nanorods. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2005, 87222106
Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R. Hydrogen engine-specific properties. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2001, 26, 987-990.
Bevenot, X.; Trouillet, A.; Veillas, C.; Gagnair, H.; Clement, M. Hydrogen leak detection using an optical sensor for aerospace application. Sens. Act. B, 2000, 67, 57-67.
Lewis, S.E.; Boer, J.R.D.; Gole, J.L.; Hesketh, P.J. Sensitive, selective, and analytical improvements to a porous silicon gas sensor. Sens. Act. Biol. Chem., 2005, 110, 54-65.
Mizsei, J. Gas sensor application of porous Si layers. Thin Solid Films, 2007, 515, 8310-8315.
Khoshnevis, S.; Dariani, R.S. AzimAraghi, M.E.; Bayindir, Z.; Robbie, K.; Observation of oxygen gas effect on porous silicon-based sensors. Thin Solid Films, 2006, 515, 2650-2654.
Hassan, J.J.; Mahdi, M.A.; Chin, C.W.; Hassan, H.A.; Hassan, Z. A high-sensitivity room-temperature hydrogen gas sensor based on oblique and vertical ZnO nanorod arrays. Sens. Act. B, 2013, 176, 360-367.
Hassan, J.J.; Mahdi, M.A.; Chin, C.W.; Hassan, H.A.; Hassan, Z. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod arrays grown on a SiO2/Si substrate via a microwave-assisted chemical solution method. J. Alloys Compd., 2013, 546, 107-111.
Mille, C.; Corkery, R.W. A structural and thermal conductivity study of highly porous, hierarchical polyhedral nanofoam shells made by condensing silica in microemulsion films on the surface of emulsified oil drops. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 1849-1859.
Dzhafarov, T.; Yuksel, S.A.; Lus, C.O.; Jpn, J. Porous silicon-based gas sensors and miniature hydrogen cells. Appl. Phys., 2008, 47, 8204-8207.
Lu, C.; Chang, S.; Cherng, C. ZnO nanowire-based oxygen gas sensor. J. IEEE Sens., 2009, 9, 485-489.
Yu, B.; Fu, Y.; Wang, P. Enhanced piezo-humidity sensing of a Cd–ZnO nanowire nanogenerator as a self-powered/active gas sensor by coupling the piezoelectric screening effect and dopant displacement mechanism. J. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phy, 2015, 17, 10856.
Iwu, K.O.; Lombardo, A.; Sanz, R.; Scirè, S.; Mirabella, S. Facile synthesis of Ni nanofoam for flexible and low-cost non-enzymatic glucose sensing. Sens. Act. B, 2016, 224, 764-771.
Gao, G.; Wu, H.B.; Ding, S.; Liu, L.M.; Lou, X.W. Hierarchical NiCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni nanofoam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors. Nanomaterials (Basel), 2015, 11, 804-808.
Jo, H.; Cho, Y.H.; Choi, M.; Cho, J.; Um, J.H.; Sung, Y.E.; Choe, H. Novel method of powder-based processing of copper nanofoams for their potential use in energy applications. Mater. Chem. Phys., 2014, 145, 6-11.
Johnston, L.T.; Biener, M.M.; Ye, J.C.; Baumann, T.F.; Kucheyev, S.O.J. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: From low to high density. Appl. Phys., 2015, 118, 25-33.
Naumkin, F.Y.; Wales, D.J. Geometry optimisation for peptides and proteins: Comparison of cartesian and internal coordinates. Chem. Phys. Lett., 2012, 545, 44-49.
Iino, T.; Nakamura, K. Acoustic and acousto-optic characteristics of silicon nanofoam. Appl. Phys., 2009, 48, 2685-2697.
Sadek, A.Z.; Choopun, S.; Wlodarski, W.; Ippolito, S.J.; Zadeh, K.K. Characterization of ZnO nanobelt-based gas sensor for H2, NO2, and hydrocarbon sensing. J. IEEE. Sens., 2007, 7, 919-924.
Erjai, T. Sam.; Liewhiran, C.; Wisitsoraat, A.; Hanichphant, S. Hydrogen sensors based on Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. In: IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2010, 138, pp. 136-138.
Lupan, O.; Emelchenko, G.A.; Ursaki, V.V.; Cha, G.; Redkin, A.N.; Gruzintsev, A.N.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Chow, L.; Ono, L.K.; Cuenya, B.R.; Heinrich, H.; Yakimov, E.E. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanowires for nano sensor applications. Mater. Res. Bull., 2010, 45, 1026-1032.
Sengupta, A.; Maji, S.; Saha, H. CBD grown aligned ZnO nanorods based methane sensor and the effect of Pd sensitization. Adv. Sci. Lett., 2010, 3, 385-392.
Mitra, P.; Chatterjee, A.P.; Maiti, H.S. Chemical deposition of ZnO film for gas sensors. J. Mater. Sci., 1998, 9, 441-445.
Pandya, H.J.; Chandra, S.; Vyas, A.L. MEMS based ethanol sensor using ZnO nanoblocks, nanocombs and nanoflakes as sensing layer. J. Sens.Trans., 2011, 134, 85-94.
Prajapati, C.S.; Sahay, P.P. Alcohol-sensing characteristics of spray deposited ZnO nano-particle thin films. Sens. Act. B, 2011, 160, 1043-1049.
Cheng, X.L.; Zhao, H.; Huo, L.H.; Gao, S.; Zhao, J.G. ZnO nanoparticulate thin film: Preparation. Sens. Act. B, 2004, 102, 248-252.
Sahay, P.P.; Nath, R.K. Al-doped ZnO thin films as methanol sensors. Sens. Act. B, 2008, 134, 654-659.
Lee, M.S.; Oh, E.; Jeong, S.H. Fabrication of H2 gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod arrays by a sonochemical method. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 2011, 32, 3735-3737.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [86 - 92]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2210681208666180927103948
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 12