Determination of Gamma Camera’s Calibration Factors for Quantitation of Diagnostic Radionuclides in Simultaneous Scattering and Attenuation Correction

Author(s): Afrouz Asgari, Mansour Ashoor, Leila Sarkhosh, Abdollah Khorshidi*, Parvaneh Shokrani

Journal Name: Current Radiopharmaceuticals

Volume 12 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Objective: The characterization of cancerous tissue and bone metastasis can be distinguished by accurate assessment of accumulated uptake and activity from different radioisotopes. The various parameters and phenomena such as calibration factor, Compton scattering, attenuation and penetration intrinsicallyinfluence calibration equation, and the qualification of images as well.

Methods: The camera calibration factor (CF) translates reconstructed count map into absolute activity map, which is determined by both planar and tomographic scans using different phantom geometries. In this study, the CF for radionuclides of Tc-99m and Sm-153 in soft tissue and bone was simulated by the Monte Carlo method, and experimental results were obtained in equivalent tissue and bone phantoms. It may be employed for the simultaneous correction of the scattering and attenuation rays interacted with the camera, leading to corrected counts. Also, the target depth (d) may be estimated by a combination of scattering and photoelectric functions, which we have published before.

Results: The calibrated equations for soft tissue phantom for the radionuclides were obtained by RTc = - 10d+ 300 and RSm = -8d + 100, and the relative errors between the simulated and experimental results were 4.5% and 3.1%, respectively. The equations for bone phantom were RTc = -30d + 300 and RSm = - 10d + 100, and the relative errors were 5.4% and 5.6%. The R and d are in terms of cpm/mCi and cm. Besides, the collimators' impact was evaluated on the camera response, and the relevant equations were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. The calibrated equations as a function of various radiation angles on the center of camera's cells without using collimator indicated that both sources have the same quadratic coefficient by -2E-08 and same vertical width from the origin by 8E-05.

Conclusion: The presented procedure may help determine the absorbed dose in the target and likewise optimize treatment planning.

Keywords: Camera calibration factor, phantom, scattering and attenuation, MCNP4C code, phantom geometries, photoelectric functions.

Serafini, A. Therapy of metastatic bone pain. J. Nucl. Med., 2001, 42(6), 895-906.
Khorshidi, A.; Ashoor, M.; Hosseini, S.H.; Rajaee, A. Estimation of fan beam and parallel beam parameters in a wire mesh design. J. Nucl. Med. Tech., 2012, 40, 37-43.
Khorshidi, A.; Ashoor, M.; Hosseini, S.H.; Rajaee, A. Evaluation of collimators’ response: Round and hexagonal holes in parallel and fan beam. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 2012, 109, 59-66.
Khorshidi, A.; Ashoor, M. Modulation transfer function assessment in parallel beam and fan beam collimators with square and cylindrical holes. Ann. Nucl. Med., 2014, 28, 363-370.
Ashoor, M.; Asgari, A.; Khorshidi, A.; Rezaei, A. Evaluation of compton attenuation and photoelectric absorption coefficients by convolution of scattering and primary functions and counts ratio on energy spectra. Indian J. Nucl. Med., 2015, 30(3), 239-247.
Autret, D.; Bitar, A.; Ferrer, L.; Lisbona, A.; Bardiès, M. Monte Carlo modeling of gamma cameras for I-131 imaging in targeted radiotherapy. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm., 2005, 20(1), 77-84.
Zhao, W.; Esquinas, P.; Hou, X.; Uribe, C.F.; Gonzalez, M.; Beauregard, J.M.; Dewaraja, Y.K.; Celler, A. Determination of gamma camera calibration factors for quantitation of therapeutic radioisotopes. EJNMMI Phys., 2018, 5(8), 1-16.
Elshemey, W.M. Ghoneim, M.A.; Khader, M.H. Scattered radiation effects on the extrinsic sensitivity and counting efficiency of a gamma camera. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 2013, 77, 18-22.
Kojima, A.; Matsumoto, M.; Tomiguchi, S.; Katsuda, N.; Yamashita, Y.; Motomura, N. Accurate scatter correction for transmission computed tomography using an uncollimated line array source. Ann. Nucl. Med., 2004, 18(1), 45-50.
Ghoneim, M.A.; Khedr, M.H.; Elshemey, W.M. Geometrical parameters and scattered radiation effects on the extrinsic sensitivity and counting efficiency of a rectangular gamma camera. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 2016, 118, 131-135.
Ivon, O.P. Evaluation of the scattered radiation components produced in a gamma camera using Monte Carlo method. Rev. Bras. Eng. Biomed., 2014, 30(2), 179-188.
Sakellios, N.G.; Karali, E.; Lazaro, D.; Loudos, G.K.; Nikita, K.S. Monte-Carlo simulation for scatter correction compensation studies in SPECT imaging using GATE software package. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 2006, 569(2), 404-408.
Bong, J.Y.; Son, H.K.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, H.J. Improved Scatter Correction for SPECT Images: A Monte Carlo Study, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 2005, 52(5), 1263-1270.
Asgari, A.; Ashoor, M.; Sohrabpour, M.; Shokrani, P.; Rezaei, A. Evaluation of various energy windows at different radionuclides for scatter and attenuation correction in nuclear medicine. Ann. Nucl. Med., 2015, 29(1), 375-383.
Khorshidi, A.; Sadeghi, M.; Pazirandeh, A.; Tenreiro, C.; Kadi, Y. Radioanalytical prediction of radiative capture in 99Mo production via transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing by cyclotron. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 2014, 299, 303-310.
Khorshidi, A. Exploration of adiabatic resonance crossing through neutron activator design for thermal and epithermal neutron formation in 99Mo production and BNCT applications. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm., 2015, 30, 317-329.
Khorshidi, A. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of 196, 198Au production yields by 197Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes. Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2016, 68, 449-454.
Khorshidi, A. Neutron activator design for 99Mo production yield estimation via lead and water moderators in transmutation’s analysis. Instrum. Exper. Tech., 2018, 61(2), 198-204.
Khorshidi, A.; Ghafoori-Fard, A.; Sadeghi, M. Epithermal neutron formation for boron neutron capture therapy by adiabatic resonance crossing concept. ‎. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E, 2014, 23, 1-16.
Khorshidi, A.; Ahmadinejad, M.; Hosseini, S.H. Evaluation of a proposed biodegradable 188Re source for brachytherapy application. Medicine, 2015, 94, 1-7.
Khorshidi, A.; Pazirandeh, A. Molybdenum transmutation via 98Mo samples using bismuth/lead neutron moderators. Europhys. Lett., 2018, 123(1), 1-5.
Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio, P.A.; Silari, M. Ulrici L. FLUKA simulations and measurements for a dump for a 250 GeV/c hadron beam. Math. Comput. Simul., 2001, 55(1-3), 3-14.
Nilsson, H.E.; Dubaric, E.; Hjelm, M.; Englund, U. Monte Carlo simulation of the transient response of single photon absorption in X-ray pixel detectors. Math. Comput. Simul., 2003, 62(3-6), 471-478.
Khorshidi, A.; Rajaee, A.; Ahmadinejad, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Ettelaee, M. Low energy electron generator design and depth dose prediction for micro-superficies tumor treatment purposes. Phys. Scr., 2014, 89(9), 1-6.
Schmidtlein, C.R.; Kirov, A.S.; Nehmeh, S.A.; Erdi, Y.E.; Humm, J.L.; Amols, H.I.; Bidaut, L.M.; Ganin, A.; Stearns, C.W.; McDaniel, D.L.; Hamacher, K.A. Validation of GATE Monte Carlo simulations of the GE Advance/Discovery LS PET scanners. Med. Phys., 2006, 33(1), 198-208.
Zhang, J.; Olcott, P.D.; Chinn, G.; Foudray, A.M.; Levine, C.S. Study of the performance of a novel 1mm resolution dual-panel PET camera design dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. Med. Phys., 2007, 34(2), 689-702.
Khorshidi, A. Accelerator driven neutron source design via beryllium target and 208Pb moderator for boron neutron capture therapy in alternative treatment strategy by Monte Carlo method. J. Cancer Res. Ther., 2017, 13(3), 456-465.
Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Islamian, J.P.; Momennezhad, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Naseri, S.H. SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT. J. Med. Phys., 2010, 35(1), 42-47.
Fan, P.; Hutton, B.F.; Holstensson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Pretorius, P.H.; Prasad, R.; Ma, T.; Liu, Y.; Wang, S.; Thorn, S.L.; Stacy, M.R.; Sinusas, A.J.; Liu, C. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for (99m)Tc/(123)I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators. Med. Phys., 2015, 4(12), 6895-6911.
Prior, P.; Timmins, R.; Petryk, J.; Strydhorst, J.; Duan, Y.; Wei, L.; Glenn, W.R. A modified TEW approach to scatter correction for In-111 and Tc-99m dual-isotope small-animal SPECT. Med. Phys., 2016, 43(10), 5503.
Gayshan, V.L.; Gektin, A.V.; Boyarintsev, A.; Pedash, V. Expanding of FOV of NaI(Tl) gamma camera detectors-Is it possible? Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 2006, 569(2), 159-161.
Ogawa, K.; Harata, Y.; Ichihara, T.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S. A practical method for position-dependent compton-scatter correction in single photon emission CT. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 1991, 10(3), 408-412.
Hill, R.; Brown, S.; Baldocka, C. Evaluation of the water equivalence of solid phantoms using gamma ray transmission measurements. Radiat. Meas., 2008, 43(7), 1258-1264.
Rasouli, M.; Ay, M.; Takavar, A.; Lashkari, S.; Loudos, G. The influence of inter-crystal scattering on detection efficiency of dedicated breast gamma camera: A monte carlo study.IFMBE Proceedings- Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, 22, pp. 2451-2454.
Soltani, N.J.; Khorshidi, A. Spectroscopy and optimizing semiconductor detector data under X and γ photons using image processing technique. J. Med. Imag Radiat. Sci., 2018, 49(2), 194-200.
Ashoor, M.; Khorshidi, A. Evaluation of crystals’ morphology on detection efficiency using modern classification criterion and monte carlo method in nuclear medicine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India. Sect A: Phys Sci., 2018, 27(8), 1-7.
Khorshidi, A.; Soltani, N.J. Report on correlation between Radon outgassing and aftershocks activity along the bam fault in kerman province of Iran. Braz. J. Rad. Sci., 2017, 5, 1-12.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 04 March, 2019
Page: [29 - 39]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1874471011666180914095222
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 60
PRC: 1