Aim and Objective: Formation of the gallbladder stones is a common disease and a major
health problem. The present study aimed to identify the structures of the most common types of
gallbladder stones using X-ray spectroscopic techniques, which provide information about the
process of stone formation.
Material and Method: Phase and elemental compositions of pure cholesterol and mixed gallstones
removed from gallbladders of patients were studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
combined with scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction.
Results: The crystal structures of gallstones which coincide with standard patterns were confirmed
by X-ray diffraction. Plate-like cholesterol crystals with laminar shaped and thin layered structures
were clearly observed for gallstone of pure cholesterol by scanning electron microscopy; it also
revealed different morphologies from mixed cholesterol stones. Elemental analysis of pure
cholesterol and mixed gallstones using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the different
formation processes of the different types of gallstones.
Conclusion: The method of fast and reliable X-ray spectroscopic techniques has numerous
advantages over the traditional chemical analysis and other analytical techniques. The results also
revealed that the X-ray spectroscopy technique is a promising technique that can aid in
understanding the pathogenesis of gallstone disease.