Structural Characterization of Gallbladder Stones Using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

Author(s): Hassan A. Almarshad, Sayed M. Badawy*, Abdalkarem F. Alsharari

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Volume 21 , Issue 7 , 2018

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Aim and Objective: Formation of the gallbladder stones is a common disease and a major health problem. The present study aimed to identify the structures of the most common types of gallbladder stones using X-ray spectroscopic techniques, which provide information about the process of stone formation.

Material and Method: Phase and elemental compositions of pure cholesterol and mixed gallstones removed from gallbladders of patients were studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction.

Results: The crystal structures of gallstones which coincide with standard patterns were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Plate-like cholesterol crystals with laminar shaped and thin layered structures were clearly observed for gallstone of pure cholesterol by scanning electron microscopy; it also revealed different morphologies from mixed cholesterol stones. Elemental analysis of pure cholesterol and mixed gallstones using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the different formation processes of the different types of gallstones.

Conclusion: The method of fast and reliable X-ray spectroscopic techniques has numerous advantages over the traditional chemical analysis and other analytical techniques. The results also revealed that the X-ray spectroscopy technique is a promising technique that can aid in understanding the pathogenesis of gallstone disease.

Keywords: X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cholesterol, gallstone, electron microscopy analysis.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2018
Published on: 15 November, 2018
Page: [495 - 500]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1386207321666180913113803
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 18