Background: Neonatal sepsis is considered as the most frequent cause of death in
newborns. Early diagnosis is important to reduce mortality and morbidity. The rapid progression of
the disease requires proper use of biomarkers specific for prompt diagnosis and intervention.
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the benefit of interleukin-33 serum levels in the diagnosis and
treatment of neonatal sepsis.
Method: We included 51 infants with neonatal sepsis as the main study group and 50 neonates
without sepsis as the control group. Serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-33 and C-reactive
protein were measured on the 1st, 3rd and 7th days of sepsis in the study group and on the 3rd
postpartum day in the control group, respectively.
Results: Serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-33 and C-reactive protein were significantly higher
in the first day of sepsis. Serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-33 and C-reactive protein decreased
significantly on the 3rd and the 7th days of antibiotic treatment. We found a significant relationship
between interleukin-33 and C-reactive protein and between interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein on
the first day of sepsis.
Conclusion: Serum interleukin-33 level is up-regulated in neonatal sepsis, which might be used as a
novel diagnostic marker and also a useful tool to predict prognosis in early neonatal sepsis.