Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathologies and Cognitive Impairments Induced by Formaldehyde in Non-Human Primates

Author(s): Rongwei Zhai, Joshua Rizak, Na Zheng, Xiaping He, Zhenhui Li, Yong Yin, Tao Su, Yingge He, Rongqiao He, Yuanye Ma, Meifeng Yang*, Zhengbo Wang*, Xintian Hu*

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 15 , Issue 14 , 2018

  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Background: Formaldehyde (FA) has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology as an age-related factor and as a protein cross-linker known to aggregate Amyloid-Beta (Aβ) and tau protein in vitro. Higher levels of FA have also been found in patients with greater cognitive impairment and in AD patient brains.

Objective: To directly evaluate the effect of chronically elevated FA levels on the primate brain with respect to AD pathological markers.

Method: Young rhesus macaques (5-8 yrs, without AD related mutations) were given chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of FA or vehicle over a 12-month period. Monkeys were monitored for changes in cognitive ability and evaluated post-mortem for common AD pathological markers.

Results: Monkeys injected with FA were found to have significant spatial working memory impairments. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of amyloid-β+ neuritic-like plaques, neurofibrillary tangle-like formations, increased tau protein phosphorylation, neuronal loss and reactive gliosis in three memory (and AD) related brain areas (the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC)) of monkeys receiving i.c.v. injections of FA. ELISA assays revealed that the amounts of pT181 and Aβ42 were markedly higher in the PFC and hippocampus of FA treated monkeys.

Conclusion: FA was found to induce major AD-like pathological markers and cognitive impairments in young rhesus monkeys independent of genetic predispositions. This suggests FA may play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, formaldehyde, aggregation, neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss, reactive gliosis, monkeys.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2018
Published on: 02 November, 2018
Page: [1304 - 1321]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/1567205015666180904150118
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 62