Early Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Based on Optical and Electrochemical Biosensors: Comprehensive Perspective

Author(s): Maryam Kharati, Sanam Foroutanparsa, Mohammad Rabiee*, Reza Salarian, Navid Rabiee, Ghazal Rabiee

Journal Name: Current Analytical Chemistry

Volume 16 , Issue 5 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) involves an immune-mediated response in which body’s immune system destructs the protective sheath (myelin). Part of the known MS biomarkers are discovered in cerebrospinal fluid like oligoclonal lgG (OCGB), and also in blood like myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG). The conventional MS diagnostic methods often fail to detect the disease in early stages such as Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), which considered as a concerning issue since CIS highlighted as a prognostic factor of MS development in most cases.

Methods: MS diagnostic techniques include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, lumbar puncture (or spinal tap) that evaluate cerebrospinal fluid, evoked potential testing revealing abnormalities in the brain and spinal cord. These conventional diagnostic methods have some negative points such as extensive processing time as well as restriction in the quantity of samples that can be analyzed concurrently. Scientists have focused on developing the detection methods especially early detection which belongs to ultra-sensitive, non-invasive and needed for the Point of Care (POC) diagnosis because the situation was complicated by false positive or negative results.

Results: As a result, biosensors are utilized and investigated since they could be ultra-sensitive to specific compounds, cost effective devices, body-friendly and easy to implement. In addition, it has been proved that the biosensors on physiological fluids (blood, serum, urine, saliva, milk etc.) have quick response in a non-invasive rout. In general form, a biosensor system for diagnosis and early detection process usually involves; biomarker (target molecule), bio receptor (recognition element) and compatible bio transducer.

Conclusion: Studies underlined that early treatment of patients with high possibility of MS can be advantageous by postponing further abnormalities on MRI and subsequent attacks.

This Review highlights variable disease diagnosis approaches such as Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), electrochemical biosensors, Microarrays and microbeads based Microarrays, which are considered as promising methods for detection and early detection of MS.

Keywords: Early diagnosis, electrochemical biosensors, microarray, microbeads technology, multiple sclerosis, surface plasmon resonance.

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VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Page: [557 - 569]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1573411014666180829111004
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