Background & Objective: Epilepsy is a common and serious chronic neurological disorder
that is mainly treated with antiepileptic drugs. Although current antiepileptic drugs used in clinical
practice have advanced to the third generation, approximately one-third of patients are refractory to
these treatments. More efficacious treatments for refractory epilepsy are therefore needed. A better
understanding of the mechanism underlying refractory epilepsy is likely to facilitate the development
of a more effective therapy. The abnormal expression and/or dysfunction of efflux transporters, particularly
ABC transporters, might contribute to certain cases of refractory epilepsy. Inflammation in
the brain has recently been shown to regulate the expression and/or function of ABC transporters in
the cerebral vascular endothelial cells and glia of the blood-brain barrier by activating intracellular
Conclusion: Therefore, in this review, we will briefly summarize recent research advances regarding
the possible role of neuroinflammation in regulating ABC transporter expression in epilepsy.
Keywords: Refractory epilepsy, ABC transporter, P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, multidrug resistanceassociated
protein, neuroinflammation, NF-κB, drug resistance.
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