Ultra-deformable Liposomes as Flexible Nanovesicular Carrier to Penetrate Versatile Drugs Transdermally

Author(s): Gaurav Tiwari*, Ruchi Tiwari, Rachna Singh, Awani K. Rai

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Introduction: Transferosomes also known as ultra-deformable liposomes were introduced by Gregor Cevc in 1990. These are deformable vesicles that transport drug across the skin, which is the best route of drug delivery because skin is the largest human organ with 3 kg total weight and a surface area of 1.5-2.0 m2.

Methods: Transferosomes are able to efficiently deliver low as well as high molecular weight drug across the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Various methods used for the preparation of transferosomes such as thin film hydration method, reverse phase evaporation method, vortex/sonication method, ethanol injection method and freeze thaw method.

Results: The prepared transferosomal preparation will be evaluated for particle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, stability study, penetration ability and skin permeation study. In vitro release studies are to be performed using a specific dissolution medium.

Conclusion: Ultra deformable liposomes can be used for delivery of different drugs e.g. analgesic, anesthetic, corticosteroids, anticancer, sex hormone, insulin, gap junction protein, and albumin.

Keywords: Ultra-deformable liposomes, transferosomes, nanovesicular carrier, entrapment efficiency, penetration ability, skin permeation.

[1]
Malakar, J.; Sen, S.O.; Nayak, A.K.; Sen, K.K. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of transferosomal gel for transdermal insulin delivery. Saudi Pharm. J., 2012, 20, 355-363.
[2]
Harneet, M.; Tarun, G.; Amit, K.; Goyal, R. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery. Drug Deliv., 2016, 23(2), 564-578.
[3]
Martin, A.; Bustamante, P.; Chun, A.H.C. Physical pharmacy; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 1993, pp. 652-653.
[4]
Schneider, M.; Stracke, F.; Hansen, S.; Schaefer, U.F. Nanoparticles and their interactions with the dermal barrier. Dermatoendocrinol, 2009, 4, 197-206.
[5]
Schmidts, T.; Dobler, D.; Von den Hoff, S.; Schlupp, P.; Garn, H.; Runkel, F. Protective effect of drug delivery systems against the enzymatic degradation of dermally applied DNAzyme. Int. J. Pharm., 2011, 410, 75-82.
[6]
Mezei, M.; Gulasekharam, V. Liposomes- a selective drug delivery system for the topical route of administration I. Lotion dosage form. Life Sci., 1980, 26, 1473-1477.
[7]
Troy, D.B. Remington: The science and practice of pharmacy; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, 2005, pp. 1018-1025.
[8]
Kirjavainen, M.; Urtti, A.; Ja¨a¨skela¨inen, I.; Suhonen, T.M.; Parone, P.; Valjakka-Koskela, R.; Kiesvaara, J.; Mönkkönen, J. Interaction of liposomes with human skin in vitro – the influence of lipid composition and structure. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin., 1996, 1304, 179-189.
[9]
Cevc, G.; Blume, G. Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to the transdermal osmotic gradients and hydration force. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin., 1992, 1104, 226-232.
[10]
Cevc, G.; Blume, G.; Scha¨tzlein, A.; Gebaue, D.; Paul, A. The skin: A pathway for systemic treatment with patches and lipid-based agent carriers. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 1996, 18, 349-378.
[11]
Srisuk, P.; Thongnopnua, P.; Raktanochai, U.; Kanokpanon, S. Physicochemical characteristics of ethotrexate-entrapped oleic acid-containing deformable liposomes for in vitro transepidermal delivery targeting psoriasis treatment. Int. J. Pharm., 2012, 427, 426-434.
[12]
Mitragotri, S. Synergistic effect of enhancers for transdermal drug delivery. Pharm. Res., 2000, 17, 1354-1359.
[13]
Hashiguchi, T.; Kodama, A.; Ryu, A.; Otagiri, M. Retention capacity of topical imidazole antifungal agents in the skin. Int. J. Pharm., 1998, 161, 195-204.
[14]
Cevc, G.; Blume, G.; Schatzlein, A. Transferosomesmediated transepidermal delivery improves the regiospecificity and biological activity of corticosteroids in vivo. J. Control. Release, 1997, 45, 211-226.
[15]
Dragicevic-Curic, N.; Gräfe, S.; Gitter, B. et al. Surface charged temoporfin-loaded flexible vesicles: In vitro skin penetration studies and stability. Int. J. Pharm., 2010, 384, 100-108.
[16]
Modi, C.D.; Bharadia, P.D. Transferosomes: A new dominants for transdermal drug delivery. Am. J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2012, 2, 71-91.
[17]
Benson, H.A. Transferosomes for transdermal drug delivery. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv., 2006, 3, 727-737.
[18]
Patel, B.R.L.; Parikh, R.H. Preparation and formulation of transferosomes containing an antifungal agent for transdermal delivery: Application of Plackett-Burman design to identify significant factors influencing vesicle size. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2012, 4, 60-61.
[19]
Ishan, G.; Hema, C.; Shashank, G.; Kanchan, K.; Vikash, K. A review of transdermal drug delivery using nano-vesicular carriers: Transferosomes. Recent Pat. Nanomed., 2012, 2, 164-171.
[20]
Inde, V.V.; Jangme, C.M.; Chavan, D.V. A review on transferosome: Is a boon to human life. Int. Res. J. Pharm. Appl. Sci., 2013, 3(2), 174-179.
[21]
Roopesh, S.; Tarun, P. Soniya; Singh V.; Singh, G.; Tyagi, S.; Patel, C.; Gupta, A. Drug carrier transferosomes: A novel tool for transdermal drug delivery system. Int. J. Res. Develop. Pharm. Life Sci., 2013, 2(2), 309-316.
[22]
Walve, J.R.; Bakliwal, S.R.; Rane, B.R.; Pawar, S.P. Transferosomes: A surrogated carrier for transdermal drug delivery system. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. Technol., 2011, 2, 201-214.
[23]
Reshmy, R.; Shoma, J.; Mukund, V.P.B.; Deepa, T.V. Transferosomes – A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation. J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res., 2011, 2(3), 138-143.
[24]
Varun, G.; Singh, H.; Bimbrawh, S.; Singh, S.K.; Gulati, M.; Vaidya, Y.; Kaur, P. Ethosomes and transferosomes: Principles, perspectives and practices. Curr. Drug Deliv., 2016, 13, 1-21.
[25]
Singh, N.; Parashar, P.; Tripathi, C.B.; Kanoujia, J.; Kaithwas, G.; Saraf, S.A. Oral delivery of allopurinol niosomes in treatment of gout in animal model. J. Liposome Res., 2017, 12, 21-25.
[26]
Podili, C.; Firoz, S. A review on transferosomes for transdermal drug delivery. J. Glob. Trends Pharm. Sci., 2014, 5(4), 2118-2127.
[27]
Pawar, A.Y.; Jadhav, K.R.; Chaudhari, L.H. Transferosome: A Novel Technique which improves transdermal permeability. Asian J. Pharm., 2016, 10(4), 425-436.
[28]
Shaji, J.; Lal, M. Preparation, optimization and evaluation of transferosomal formulation for enhanced transdermal delivery of a COX-2 inhibitor. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 6, 467-477.
[29]
Hussain, A.; Samad, A.; Ramzan, M.; Ahsan, M.N.; Rehman, Z.; Ahmad, F.J. Elastic liposome-based gel for topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil: in vitro and in vivo investigation. Drug Deliv., 2014, 7, 1-15.
[30]
Cevc, G.; Blume, G. New, highly efficient formulation of diclofenac for the topical, transdermal administration in ultradeformable drug carriers, transferosomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2001, 1514, 191-205.
[31]
Yang, Y.; Ou, R.; Guan, S.; Ye, X.; Hu, B.; Zhang, Y. A novel drug delivery gel of terbinafine hydrochloride with high penetration for external use. Drug Deliv., 2015, 22, 1086-1093.
[32]
Laxmi, M.V.; Zafaruddin, M.D. Design and characterization of transferosomal gel of repaglinide. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2015, 6, 38-42.
[33]
Alomrani, A.H.; Shazly, G.A.; Amara, A.A. Itraconazolehydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded deformable liposomes: In vitro skin penetration studies and antifungal efficacy using Candida albicans as model. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 2014, 121, 74-85.
[34]
Ahmed, H.; Shuwaili, A.L.; Bazigha, K.; Abdul, R.; Alaa, A.A. Optimization of elastic transferosomes formulations for transdermal 5 delivery of pentoxifylline. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 2016, 102, 101-114.
[35]
Gupta, A.; Aggarwal, G.; Singla, S.; Arora, R. Transferosomes: A novel vesicular carrier for enhanced transdermal delivery of sertraline: Development, characterization, and performance evaluation. Sci. Pharm., 2012, 80(4), 1061-1080.
[36]
Mohammed, H.K.; Shahira, F.E.M.; Heba, A.; Marwa, H.E. Loratadine bioavailability via buccal transferosomal gel: Formulation, statistical optimization, in vitro/in vivo characterization, and pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Drug Deliv., 2017, 24(01), 781-791.
[37]
Pathak, K.; Sharma, V.; Sharma, M. Optimization, in vitro cytotoxicity and penetration capability of deformable nanovesicles of paclitaxel for dermal chemotherapy in Kaposi sarcoma. Artif. Cells Nanomed. Biotechnol., 2016, 44, 1671-1683.
[38]
Lin, M-W.; Huang, Y-B.; Chen, C-L.; Wu, P-C.; Chou, C-Y.; Wu, P-C.; Hung, S-Y. A formulation study of 5-aminolevulinic encapsulated in DPPC liposomes in melanoma treatment. Int. J. Med. Sci., 2016, 13, 483-489.
[39]
Dorrani, M.; Garbuzenko, O.B.; Minko, T.; Michniak-Kohn, B. Development of edge-activated liposomes for siRNA delivery to human basal epidermis for melanoma therapy. J. Control. Release, 2016, 228, 150-158.
[40]
Gupta, V.; Karthikeyan, C.; Trivedi, P. Localized delivery of cisplatin for the effective management of squamous cell carcinoma from protransferosome formulation. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2012, 35, 51-859.
[41]
Alam, Zeba. Omer, S.Q.; Chan-Hee, Yua.; Muhammad, A.; Hyung-Seo, K.; Myung-Sic, Kima.; Jong-Ho, K.; Arshad, M.; Sun-Young, C.; Ok-Nam, Baea.; Jin-Ki, Kima. Enhanced anti-rheumatic activity of methotrexate-entrapped ultradeformable liposomal gel in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. Int. J. Pharm., 2017, 525(1), 92-100.
[42]
Abdul, Ahad. Abdulmohsen, A.; Abdullah, M.A.; Fahad, I.A.; Mohammad, R.; Alaa, E.; Mohd, A.A. Formulation and characterization of novel soft nanovesicles for enhanced transdermal delivery of eprosartan mesylate. Saudi Pharm. J., 2017, 25(7), 1040-1046.
[43]
Marwa, H.A. Transferosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system for enhancement the antifungal activity of nystatin. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2013, 5(4), 560-567.
[44]
Patel, R.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.; Seth, N.R.; Gendle, R. Development and characterization of curcumin loaded transferosome for transdermal delivery. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. Res., 2009, 1(4), 71-80.
[45]
Vanic, Z.; Hafner, A.; Bego, M.; Skalko-Basnet, N. Characterization of various deformable liposomes with metronidazole. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 2013, 39(3), 481-488.
[46]
Khan, M.A.; Pandit, J.; Sultana, Y.; Sultana, S.; Ali, A.; Aqil, M.; Chauhan, M. Novel carbopolbased transfersomal gel of 5-fluorouracil for skin cancer treatment: In vitro characterization and in vivo study. Drug Deliv., 2015, 22, 795-802.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 10
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [12 - 20]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/2210681208666180820145327
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 13
HTML: 4