Background: RNA interference (RNAi) is a process for regulating the gene expression
in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) silence target genes. siRNA-based therapy as a new
molecular treatment approach, offers therapeutic prospects for many common diseases such as cancer
and cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, the efficacy of siRNA delivery has, so far, remained
a challenging issue. This is due to their easy degradation through the circulation system and the
difficulties in the intracellular delivery to specific tissues where they silence the target genes. There
have been many efforts to develop suitable, safe and effective siRNA delivery systems in the past
decades. These efforts specifically aimed to protect siRNA from serum nucleases and deliver it to
an intracellular region in the desired target cells. In this context, one of the new and popular approaches
is nanovehicle-mediated siRNA delivery systems.
Objective: Here, the authors reviewed and highlighted the recent advances in this exciting and fast
growing field to help in the development of effective therapeutic tools in controlling human diseases.
Methods: A literature search was conducted from electronic databases such as Pubmed and Google
scholar including original articles and review articles.
Conclusion: siRNA delivery systems potentially may be used in future medicine, particularly for
untreatable or poorly treated diseases. As we learn more about these delivery systems, we can better
use the tremendous opportunities provided by siRNA-based therapeutics. The results of ongoing
clinical trials will play an important role in determining whether siRNA-based drugs can be considered
as a new class of drugs.