Background: In recent years, the textile fibres and fabrics enriched with multifunctional
properties have gained much attention and accepted abundantly. In general, the flame-retardation ability
to the textile substrates is endowed with one of the most attentive factors that needed applicability
in civilian as well military area. Specific chemical bonding in several textile materials (i.e. cotton, linen,
hemp; silk & wool; nylon; polypropylene; polyester) acquired specificity towards implanting
flame-retardancy. The present review encompasses various finishing agents being used to develop the
flame-resistant property and their aspects to sensitization and durability against several washing cycles
with future research-oriented opportunities.
Results: With existing flame retarding materials, various new substituted technologies, finishing
agents and active materials are being developed to meet the challenge and needs of ever-changing
safety regulations. It is an interdisciplinary development that involves quite a lot of scientific and engineering
tools. In the present review, various finishing agents being used to develop the durable
flame-resistant property are discussed with possible future directions.
Conclusion: All the textile materials, i.e. cellulosic (cotton, linen), proteinaceous (silk, wool), and
synthetic (nylon, polyester, polypropylene), including fibres/fabrics/blends, have been extensively
used, especially in military and civilian area enriched with high comfort nature and several mechanical
properties. Except for wool that is significantly fire-resist, other textile fibre abundantly possesses low
fire retardancy and, requires further additional chemical processing towards implanting flame retardancy.
Nevertheless, most of the flame retardants have been observed to have bad impacts/effects on
the environment and associated with skin related to human health. Novel technologies and innovative
products are being under considerations to bottom down the present challenges and issues. This would
help to make cleaner substitutes for sincerely harmful conventional flame retardant finishing agents
and to explore new opportunities in the textile industry and R& D sector.