Background: Insulin (INS) has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Due to its
large molecular weight and short half-life, it has been usually administered subcutaneously accompanied
with side effects such as the possibility of hypoglycemia episodes, weight gain and inadequate
post-meal glucose control.
Objective: In order to overcome these limitations, alternative delivery routes of insulin are expected to
provide better safety and compliance for the patient. Non-invasive insulin delivery system represents
one of the most challenging goals for pharmaceutical industry. Nasal insulin delivery has been extensively
studied as an alternative to subcutaneous injection for the treatment of diabetes. The pharmacokinetic
profile of nasal insulin is similar to that obtained by intravenous injection.
Result & Conclusion: This review discusses the most recent developments in nasal insulin administration
technology. Firstly, the structure and physiology of the nasal cavity are introduced. Then, the advantages
and disadvantages of nasal administration are discussed. Next, the methods of enhancing nasal
insulin absorption and the dosage forms for insulin nasal administration are described. Furthermore,
new therapeutic indications of nasal insulin administration were also investigated. Finally, the future
development and respective technology of nasal insulin administration are prospected.