Background: Nowadays, ionizing radiations are used for various medical and terroristic aims.
These purposes involve exposure to ionizing radiations. Hence, people are at risk for acute or late effects.
Annually, millions of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy during their course of treatment. Also, some
radiological or nuclear events in recent years pose a threat to people, hence the need for radiation mitigation
strategies. Amifostine, the first FDA approved radioprotector, has shown some toxicities that limit its
usage and efficiency. Due to these side effects, scientists have researched for other agents with less toxicity
for better radioprotection and possible mitigation of the lethal effects of ionizing radiations after an accidental
exposure. Flavonoids have shown promising results for radioprotection and can be administered
in higher doses with less toxicity. Studies for mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced toxicities have concentrated
on natural antioxidants. Detoxification of free radicals, management of inflammatory responses
and attenuation of apoptosis signaling pathways in radiosensitive organs are the main mechanisms for radiation
protection and mitigation with flavonoids and natural antioxidants. However, several studies have
proposed that a combination in the form of some antioxidants may alleviate radiation toxicities more effectively
in comparison to a single form of antioxidants.
Conclusion: In this review, we focus on recent findings about natural radioprotectors and mitigators
which are clinically applicable for radiotherapy patients, as well as injured people in possible radiation