Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: Should we Reach Beyond LDL-C?

Author(s): Peter P. Toth

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 17 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: A report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2014; 129: 1-45.
Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G, et al. ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The task force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European society of cardiology (ESC) and the European atherosclerosis society (EAS). Eur Heart J 2011; 32: 1769-818.
Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Wiviott SD, et al. Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 1500-9.
Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 2387-97.
Steg P. Evaluation of cardiovascular outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome during treatment with alirocumab - odyssey outcomes. American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions 2018.
Hafiane A, Genest J. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. BBA Clin 2015; 3: 175-88.
Aru V, Lam C, Khakimov B, et al. Quantification of lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Trends Analyt Chem 2017; 94: 210-9.
Pathak M, Chaudhary N, Rathore AS. Development of a low-cost, high-throughput native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) protocol for lipoprotein sub-fractionation using quality by design approach. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2014; 92: 119-26.
Xu R-X, Li S, Li X-L, et al. High-density lipoprotein subfractions in relation with the severity of coronary artery disease: A Gensini score assessment. J Clin Lipidol 2015; 9: 26-34.
Superko HR. Advanced lipoprotein testing and subfractionation are clinically useful. Circulation 2009; 119: 2383-95.
Zilversmit DB. Atherogenesis: A postprandial phenomenon. Circulation 1979; 60: 473-85.
Garcia-Rios A, Delgado-Lista J, Perez-Martinez P, et al. Genetic variations at the lipoprotein lipase gene influence plasma lipid concentrations and interact with plasma n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis 2011; 218: 416-22.
Liu J, Afroza H, Rader DJ, Jin W. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity through enhancing its cleavage by proprotein convertases. J Biol Chem 2010; 285: 27561-70.
Norata GD, Tsimikas S, Pirillo A, Catapano AL. Apolipoprotein C-III: From pathophysiology to pharmacology. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2015; 36: 675-87.
Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Moorjani S, et al. Small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the risk of ischemic heart disease in men. Prospective results from the Quebec cardiovascular study. Circulation 1997; 95: 69-75.
Galeano NF, Al-Haideri M, Keyserman F, Rumsey SC, Deckelbaum RJ. Small dense low density lipoprotein has increased affinity for LDL receptor-independent cell surface binding sites: A potential mechanism for increased atherogenicity. J Lipid Res 1998; 39: 1263-73.
Toft-Petersen AP, Tilsted HH, Aaroe J, et al. Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: A case-control study. Lipids Health Dis 2011; 10: 21.
Yokota Y, Koba S, Tsunoda F, et al. Comparison between small dense ldl-cholesterol and ldl-cholesterol to predict coronary events in stable coronary heart disease. In: Miyazaki A, Imawari M, (eds) New Frontiers in Lifestyle-Related Diseases. Tokyo: Springer Japan 2008; pp. 147-53.
McNamara JR, Shah PK, Nakajima K, et al. Remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor in women: results from the Framingham heart study. Atherosclerosis 2001; 154: 229-36.
Imke C, Rodriguez BL, Grove JS, et al. Are remnant-like particles independent predictors of coronary heart disease incidence? The honolulu heart study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 1718-22.
Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1563-74.
Zambon A, Puato M, Faggin E, Grego F, Rattazzi M, Pauletto P. Lipoprotein remnants and dense LDL are associated with features of unstable carotid plaque: A flag for non-HDL-C. Atherosclerosis 2013; 230: 106-9.
Varbo A, Benn M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Jorgensen AB, Frikke-Schmidt R, Nordestgaard BG. Remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61: 427-36.
Joshi PH, Khokhar AA, Massaro JM, et al. Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and incident coronary heart disease: The jackson heart and framingham offspring cohort studies. J Am Heart Assoc 2016; 5: e002765.
Varbo A, Benn M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Elevated remnant cholesterol causes both low-grade inflammation and ischemic heart disease, whereas elevated low-density lipoprotei: Cholesterol causes ischemic heart disease without inflammation. Circulation 2013; 128: 1298-309.
Takeya M, Yoshimura T, Leonard EJ, Takahashi K. Detection of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human atherosclerotic lesions by an anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 monoclonal antibody. Hum Pathol 1993; 24: 534-9.
Twickler TB, Dallinga-Thie GM, Visseren FL, de Vries WR, Erkelens DW, Koppeschaar HP. Induction of postprandial inflammatory response in adult onset growth hormone deficiency is related to plasma remnant-like particle-cholesterol concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 1228-33.
Doi H, Kugiyama K, Oka H, et al. Remnant lipoproteins induce proatherothrombogenic molecules in endothelial cells through a redox-sensitive mechanism. Circulation 2000; 102: 670-6.
Nakajima K, Nakano T, Tokita Y, et al. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism; VLDL vs chylomicrons. Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412: 1306-18.
Castelli WP. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease-the framingham heart study. Can J Cardiol 1988; 4: 5-10.
Boden WE. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease: Assessing the data from framingham to the veterans affairs high-density lipoprotein intervention trial. Am J Cardiol 2000; 86: 19-22.
Assmann G, Schulte H, von Eckardstein A, Huang Y. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of coronary heart disease risk. The PROCAM experience and pathophysiological implications for reverse cholesterol transport. Atherosclerosis 1996; 124(Suppl. S): 11-20.
Keil U, Liese AD, Hense HW, et al. Classical risk factors and their impact on incident non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in southern Germany. Results from the MONICA Augsburg cohort study 1984-1992. Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 1197-207.
Bartlett J, Predazzi IM, Williams SM, et al. Is isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol a cardiovascular disease risk factor? New insights from the framingham offspring study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2016; 9: 206-12.
Wolfram RM, Brewer HB, Xue Z, et al. Impact of low high-density lipoproteins on in-hospital events and one-year clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome treated with drug-eluting stent implantation. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98: 711-7.
Toth PP, Barter PJ, Rosenson RS, et al. High-density lipoproteins: A consensus statement from the national lipid association. J Clin Lipidol 2013; 7: 484-525.
Martin SS, Jones SR, Toth PP. High-density lipoprotein subfractions: Current views and clinical practice applications. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2014; 25: 329-36.
Martin SS, Khokhar AA, May HT, et al. HDL cholesterol subclasses, myocardial infarction, and mortality in secondary prevention: The lipoprotein investigators collaborative. Eur Heart J 2015; 36: 22-30.
Asztalos BF, Collins D, Cupples LA, et al. Value of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations in predicting recurrent cardiovascular events in the veterans affairs HDL intervention trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 2185-91.
Rizzo M, Otvos J, Nikolic D, Montalto G, Toth PP, Banach M. Subfractions and subpopulations of HDL: An update. Curr Med Chem 2014; 21: 2881-91.
Lamarche B, Moorjani S, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Lupien PJ, Despres JP. Associations of HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions with ischemic heart disease in men. Prospective results from the Quebec cardiovascular study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 1098-105.
Serban C, Muntean D, Mikhailids DP, Toth PP, Banach M. Dysfunctional HDL: The journey from savior to slayer. Clin Lipidol 2014; 9: 49-59.
Yamamoto S, Yancey PG, Ikizler TA, et al. Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 60: 2372-9.
Kidawa M, Gluba-Brzózka A, Zielinska M, Franczyk B, Banach M, Rysz J. Cholesterol subfraction analysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2019; 17: 365-75.

free to download

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 11 June, 2019
Page: [376 - 378]
Pages: 3
DOI: 10.2174/1570161116999180613120902

Article Metrics

PDF: 21
PRC: 1