In this review, the loading efficacies of helper and Cationic Lipids Cholesterol
(CHOL), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), Dioctadecyl Dimethyl-
Ammonium Bromide (DDAB) and Dioleoyl Phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) with milk β-
lactoglobulin, α-casein and β-casein were compared in aqueous solution at physiological conditions.
Structural analysis showed that lipids bind milk proteins via hydrophilic, hydrophobic
and H-bonding contacts with DOTAP and DDAB forming more stable protein conjugates.
Loading efficacy was 30-50% and enhanced with cationic lipids. Lipid conjugation altered
protein conformation, causing a partial protein structural destabilization. Milk proteins are
capable of transporting lipids in vitro.