Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), still remains a deadly
disease worldwide. With prolonged usage of anti-TB drugs, the current therapeutic regimes are
becoming ineffective, particularly due to emergence of drug resistance in MTB. Under such
compelling circumstances, it is pertinent to look for new drug targets. The cell wall envelope of MTB
is composed of unique lipids that are frequently targeted for anti-TB therapy. This is evident from the
fact that most of the commonly used front line drugs (Isoniazid and Ethambutol) act on lipid
machinery of MTB. Thus, despite the fact that much of the attention is towards understanding the
MTB lipid biology, in search for identification of new drug targets, our knowledge of bacterial cell
wall non-lipid components remains rudimentary and underappreciated. Better understanding of such
components of mycobacterial cell structure will help in the identification of new drug targets that can
be utilized on the persistent mycobacterium. This review at a common platform summarizes some of
the non-lipid cell wall components in MTB that have potential to be exploited as future drug targets.
Keywords: Mycobacterium, cell wall, drug target, tuberculosis, HIV, ∝-D-glucan.
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