Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Conventional treatment has a limitation of
very narrow therapeutic time window and its devastating nature necessitate a novel regenerative approach. Transplanted
stem cells resulted in functional recovery through multiple mechanisms including neuroprotection, neurogenesis,
angiogenesis, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the promising features shown
in experimental studies, results from clinical trials are inconclusive from the perspective of efficacy. The present
review presents a synopsis of stem cell research on ischemic stroke treatment according to cell type. Clinical trials
to the present are briefly summarized. Finally, the hurdles and issues to be solved are discussed for clinical application.
Keywords: Stroke, cell-based therapy, clinical trials, stem cells, angiogenesis, immunomodulation.
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