Modulation of Immuno-biome during Radio-sensitization of Tumors by Glycolytic Inhibitors

Author(s): Seema Gupta*, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 24 , 2020


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Abstract:

The Tumor Microenvironment (TME) comprising stromal cells, fibroblasts and various components of the immune system forms a pro-tumorigenic cocoon around the tumor cells with the reprogramming of the metabolism in the form of Warburg phenotype (enhanced aerobic glycolysis) in tumor as well as non-tumor cells. This reprogramming plays a significant role in suppressing the immune response leading to the survival and proliferation of tumor cells and resistance to therapies. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in developing strategies involving metabolic modifiers to improve the therapeutic efficacy that restores immune competence, besides enhancing the direct effects on tumor cells. Inhibitors of glycolysis like 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG; a hexokinase inhibitor), dichloroacetate and small molecule inhibitors of lactate transport (MCT-1) are some of the metabolic modifiers investigated for their therapeutic as well as adjuvant potential. Among these, 2-DG has been widely investigated and established as an ideal adjuvant in the radio- and chemotherapy of tumors. Modulation of the immuno-biome in the form of cytokine shifts, differential transcriptional regulation, abrogation of immunosuppressive network and reduced accumulation of lactate are some of the contributing factors for immune stimulation linked to the radio- and chemosensitization by glycolytic inhibitors.

Keywords: Glycolysis, metabolic modifiers, 2-DG, immune modulation, radiosensitization, immunosuppression, immunostimulation.

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VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 24
Year: 2020
Published on: 06 July, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180601101145
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