Background: Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common tumor originating from
the kidneys. In comparison to other solid tumors, RCC is poorly sensitive to conventional therapeutic
modalities. As such, metastatic RCC (mRCC) continues to be associated with high rates of morbidity
and mortality. Targeted agents have shown remarkable progress in RCC management with
improved patients' outcomes, but rarely induce complete response and patients develop resistance
to therapy eventually. However, it is well known that RCC represents one of the most immunogenic
cancers and is able to evoke immune response naturally, thus prompted the emergence of several
immunotherapeutic strategies in the management of RCC with variable degrees of success. Modulating
the immune system with cytokines, vaccines, and T-cell modulating agents offer hope for the
patients with RCC.
Conclusion: This review critically summarizes the state of the art in RCC therapeutic regimen with
immunomodulation agents. We will focus on the clinical data and ongoing clinical trials exploring
the use of immunotherapy with different agents for RCC. In addition, different novel immunotherapeutic
agents are being investigated for their combination therapy with other immune therapies or
other modalities. Prospects (e.g., potential future immunological targets, combination regimens,
appropriate sequencing) for immune therapies of RCC are also set forth in this work.