An Overview of Paris polyphylla, a Highly Vulnerable Medicinal Herb of Eastern Himalayan Region for Sustainable Exploitation

Author(s): Arcadius Puwein*, Shiny C. Thomas

Journal Name: The Natural Products Journal

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Paris polyphylla has been traditionally used in China, India and Nepal to relieve various ailments such as antidote for snake bites, insect poison, relieving wounds, sore throat, etc. P. polyphylla like many plants in nature contains numerous potential bioactive compounds. Such bioactive compounds of the herb that have significant biological activities such as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral need to be validated and augmented with many assays.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to compile the major research works of the herb and updates information on its developments and approaches that have been rapidly taking place in recent years, so that further novel research can be envisaged.

Methods: The published reviews act as the first catalyst and initiator to delve on the studies done so far about this medicinal herb. The research about the plant such as classification, micropropagation, phytochemisty, and bioactivity was investigated from papers that were reported from index journals.

Results: New compounds such as paristenosides A and B are being added to the existing known compounds. There are new high-throughput approaches in the classification of the plant and micropropagation. The traditional uses of the herb are being validated through different bioactivity assays.

Conclusion: The continuous research that is being carried out on this herb implies that the depth of knowledge about the plant is gradually consolidated and the mechanism of the bioactive compounds derived is slowly comprehended.

Keywords: Paris polyphylla, herb, steroidal saponins, rhizomes, bioactive compounds, biological activities.

[1]
Bhakuni, D.S.; Labroo, V.M.; Singh, A.N.; Kapil, R.S. Biosynthesis of the bisbenylisoquinoline alkaloid cocsulin. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans., 1978, 1, 121.
[2]
Shah, A.S.; Mazumder, P.B.; Choudhury, M.D. Medicinal properties of Paris polyphylla smith: A review. J. Herb. Med. Toxicol., 2012, 6(1), 27-33.
[3]
Long, C.L.; Li, H.; Ouyang, Z.Q.; Yang, X.Y.; Li, Q.; Trangmar, B. Strategies for agrobiodiversity conservation and promotion: A case from Yunnan, China. Biodivers. Conserv., 2003, 12, 1145-1156.
[4]
Liang, S.Y.; Soukup, V.G.; Paris, L. Flora of China, Volume 24 Flagellariceae through Marantaceae; Wu Z.Y; Raven P.H. ed.;Beijing, China: Science Press and St Luis, USA: Botanical Garden Press,. , 2000, pp. 88-95.
[5]
Man, S.; Gao, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, C.; Yang, L.and ; Li, Y. Paridis saponins inhibiting carcinoma growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2011, 34(1), 43-50.
[6]
Ji, Y.H.; Fritsch, P.W.; Li, H.; Xiao, T.J.; Zhou, Z.K. Phylogeny and classification of Paris (Melanthiaceae) inferred from DNA sequence data. Ann. Bot., 2006, 98, 245-256.
[7]
Hara, H. Variations in Paris polyphylla Smith with reference to other Asiatic species. Journal of the faculty of science, University of Tokyo, Sect. 3. Botany, 1969, 10, 141-180.
[8]
Singh, R.K.I.; Panmei, C.; Devi, L.S.; Shah, S.A.; Devi, K.T.; Devi, Kh.S. Paris polyphylla; Smith-The Wonder Herb: In Proceeding international conclave on medicinal plants for ASEAN &BIMSTEC countries, Imphal, Manipur, India,. , 2008, pp. 82-86.
[9]
Deb, C.R.; Jamir, S.L.; Jamir, N.S. Studies on vegetative and reproductive ecology of Paris polyphylla Smith: A vulnerable medicinal plant. Am. J. Plant Sci., 2015, 6, 2561-2568.
[10]
Tag, H. Mainstreaming conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant diversity in three Indian States. Final Technical Report submitted to UNDP Cell; New Delhi, India: Govt. of India,. , 2012, pp. 1-124.
[11]
Pande, P.C.; Tiwari, L.; Pande, H.C. Ethnoveterinary plants of Uttaranchal- A review. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2007, 6, 444-458.
[12]
Mall, B.; Gauchan, D.; Chhetri, R.B. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in Parbat district of western Nepal. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2015, 165, 103-117.
[13]
Tiwari, J.K.; Ballabha, R.; Tiwari, P. Ethnopaediatrics in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India (Psychomedicine and Medicine). New York Sci. J, 2010, 3(4), 123-126.
[14]
Sharma, A.; Kalita, P.; Tag, H. Distribution and phytomedicinal aspects of Paris polyphylla Smith from the Eastern Himalayan Region: A review. Humanitas Med., 2015, 5(3), 15.
[15]
Yun, H.; Lijian, C.; Wenhong, Z.; Yuhong, D.; Yongli, W.; Qiang, W.and; Ding, Z. Separation and identification of steroidal compounds with cytotoxic activity against human gastric cancer cell lines in vitro from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Chem. Nat. Compd., 2007, 43(6), 672-677.
[16]
Lee, M.S.; Yuet-Wa, J.C.; Kong, S.K.; Yu, B.; Eng-Choon, V.O.; Nai-Ching, H.W.; Wai, T.M.; Fung, K.P. Cancer Bio. Ther., 2005, 4(11), 1248-1254.
[17]
The Pharmacopoeia Committee of China. Chinese Pharmacopoeia., 2010 ed., Beijing: The People's Medical Publishing House. 2010, 243-4.
[18]
Wu, S.S.; Gao, W.Y.; Duan, H.Q.; Jia, W. Advances in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Rhizoma Paridis. Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs, 2004, 35, 344-347.
[19]
Yan, L.L.; Zhang, Y.J.; Gao, W.Y.; Man, S.L.; Wang, Y. In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of steroid saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Exp. Oncol., 2009.
[20]
Chowdhery, H.J.; Giri, G.S.; Pramanik, A. Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh; Vol. 3. Hydrocharitaceae-Poaceae. Flora of India, Series 2. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India. , 2009, p. 349.
[21]
Gogoi, R. The family Liliaceae in Manipur, India. Bull. Arunachal Forest Res., 2010, 26, 73-81.
[22]
Goraya, G.S.; Jishtu, V.; Rawat, G.S.; Ved, D.K. Wild medicinal plants of Himachal Pradesh: An assessment for their conservation status and management prioritization; Himachal Pradesh Forest Department: Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013.
[23]
ENVIS. Medicinal plants of conservation concern. ENVIS centre on conservation of medicinal plants, FRLHT, Bangalore. 2010.http://envis.frlht.org/medicinal-plants-conservation-concern-species. php [accessed January 25 2018].
[24]
Lalsangluaii, F.; Chinlampianga, M.; Shukla, A.C. Efficacy and potency of Paris polyphylla Smith, an ethno-medicinal plant of Mizoram. Sci. Technol. J., 2013, 1, 36-40.
[25]
Jamir, N.S. Lanusunep.; Pongener, N. Medico-herbal medicine practiced by the Naga tribes in the state of Nagaland (India). Indian Fund. Appl. Life Sci., 2012, 2, 328-333.
[26]
Maity, D.; Pradhan, N.; Chauhan, A.S. Flock uses of some medicinal plants from North Sikkim. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2004, 3, 66-71.
[27]
Mir, A.H.; Upadhaya, K.; Choudhury, H. Diversity of endemic and threatened ethnomedicinal plant species in Meghalaya, north-east India. Int. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 2014, 3, 64-78.
[28]
Zhang, M.; Li, Y.W.; Li, Z.Y.; Huang, X.L. Zhu.; Liu Q.S. Progress on studies of endangered ethno-medicine of Rhizoma Paris. J Cent. Univ. Nat.(Nat Sci Ed), 2011, 20, 65-69.
[29]
Wen, F.; Yin, H.; Chen, C.; Liu, X.; Xue, D.; Chen, T.; He, J.; Zhang, H. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H. Fitoterapia, 2012, 83, 627-635.
[30]
Jianjun, Qi.; Zheng, Na.; Zhang, B.; Sun, P.; Hu, S.; Xu, W.; Ma, Q.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, L.; Qin, M.; Xianen, L. Mining genes involved in the stratification of Paris polyphylla seeds using high-throughput embryo transcriptome sequencing. BMC Genomics, 2013, 14, 358.
[31]
Jamir, S.L.; Jamir, N.S.; Deb, C.R. Production of clonal planting material and propagation of Paris polyphylla Smith var. polyphylla through rhizome splitting. Eur. J. Biotech. Biosci., 2015, 3(9), 43-46.
[32]
Danu, K.; Singh, A.R.; Pande, V.; Kumar, S.M.; Rawal, P. Vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant of Himalayan region, Paris polyphylla Smith. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2015, 4(6), 660-665.
[33]
Shiveirou, R.; Kumaria, S.; Tandon, P. Plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos of the medicinal plant, Paris polyphylla Sm. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 2014, 118(3), 445-455.
[34]
Shiveirou, R.; Kumaria, S.; Kehie, M.; Pramod, T. Plantlet regeneration of Paris polyphylla Sm. via thin cell layer culture and enhancement of steroidal saponins in mini-rhizome cultures using elicitors; Springer Netherlands, 2015, pp. 341-353.
[35]
Rajsekhar, P.B.; Bharani, A.R.S.; Angel, K.J.; Ramachandran, M.; Priya, S.; Rajsekhar, V. Extraction of Paris polyphylla rhizome using different solvents and its phytochemical studies. Int. J. of Pharmacog. Phytochem. Res., 2016, 8(1), 18-21.
[36]
Fu, Y.L.; Zhao, Z.H.; Shan, Y.J.; Cong, Y.W. Inducing effect of total steroid saponins from Paris polyphylla on platelet aggregation in vitro and its potential mechanism. Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci., 2007, 31, 416-419.
[37]
Tang, H.F.; Zhao, Y.P. Research survey of plants of Paris L. Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs, 1998, 12, 839-842.
[38]
Devkota, K.P. Bioprospecting studies on Sarcococca hookeriana Bail, Sonchus wightianus DC, Paris polyphylla Smith and related Medicinal Herbs of Nepal:. Ph D Thesis, HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical Science, University of Karachi: Karachi-75270, Pakistan,. 2005.
[39]
Zhao, Y.; Kang, L.P.; Liu, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.; Xiong, C.Q.; Ma, B.P.; Dong, F.T. Three new steroidal saponins from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla. Magn. Reson. Chem., 2007, 45, 739-744.
[40]
Zhao, Y.; Kang, L.P.; Liu, Y.X.; Liang, Y.G.; Tan, D.W.; Yu, Z.Y.; Cong, Y.W.; Ma, B.P. Steroidal saponins from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla and their cytotoxic activities. Planta Med., 2009, 75, 356-363.
[41]
Jin, L.Y.; Lu, T.X.; Qin, X.J.; Ni, W.; Yan, H.; Chen, Y.; Liu, H.; He, H.P.; Liu, H.Y. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Nat. Prod. Bioprospect., 2016.
[42]
Wei, J.C.; Gao, W.Y.; Yan, X.D.; Wang, Y.; Jing, S.S.; Xiao, P.G. Chemical constituents of plants from the Genus Paris. Chem. Biodivers., 2014, 11, 1277.
[43]
Lin, Z.; Liu, Y.; Li, F.; Wu, J.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Lu, L.; Liu, Z. Anti-lung cancer effects of polyphyllin VI and VII potentially correlate with apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Phytother. Res., 2015, 29, 1568-1576.
[44]
Yu, Q.; Li, Q.; Lu, P.; Chen, Q. Polyphyllin D induces apoptosis in U87 human glioma cells through the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway. J. Med. Food, 2014, 17(9), 1036-1042.
[45]
Yue, G.; Wei, J.; Qian, X.; Yu, L.; Zou, Z.; Guan, W.; Wang, H.; Shen, J.; Liu, B. Synergistic anticancer effects of polyphyllin I and evodiamine on freshly-removed human gastric tumors. PLoS One, 2013, 8e65164
[46]
Xiao, X.; Zo, J.; Bui-Nguyen, T.M.; Bai, P.; Gao, L. Liu. J.; Liu, S.; Xiao, J.; Chen, X.; Zhang, X.; Wang. H. Paris saponin II of rhizoma paridis - A novel inducer of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Biosci. Trends, 2012, 6(4), 201-211.
[47]
Zhang, W.; Zhang, D.; Ma, X.; Liu, Z.; Li, F.; Wu, D. Paris saponin VII suppressed the growth of human cervical cancer Hela cells. J. Med. Res., 2014, 19, 41.
[48]
Qin, X.J.; Sun, D.J.; Ni, W.; Chen, C.X.; Hua, Y.; He, L.; Liu, H.Y. Steroidal saponins from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var.yunnanensis. Steroids, 2012, 77, 1242-1248.
[49]
Qin, X.J.; Chen, C.X.; Ni, W.; Yan, H.; Liu, H.Y. C22-steroidal lactone glycosides from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Fitoterapia, 2013, 84, 248-251.
[50]
GuangLie, C.; WeiShi, G.; GaiLing, H.; JianPing, C. Effect of paris saponin on antitumor and immune function in U14 tumor-bearing mice. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 2013, 10, 503-507.
[51]
Ji, S.; Zhou, T.S.; Chang, C.Z. Determination of Antitumor cytotoxic active substance gracillin in Rhizoma Paridis and yunnan white. Chinese Trad. Patent Med., 2001, 23, 212-215.
[52]
Song, L.; Hong, X.; Ding, Z. Paris plants. In: Modern Grand Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica; Beijing: People’s Sanitation Press,. , 2001; pp. 1619-1622.
[53]
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Z. Exploration of the correlation between the structure, hemolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of steroid saponins. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2007, 15(7), 2528-2532.
[54]
Zhang, L.T.; Zuo, Y.T.; Gao, W.Y. Anti-tumor effects of extracts and chemical constituents from Paris polyphylla var yunnanensis. Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs, 2007, 38, 422-424.
[55]
Bachran, C.; Sutherland, M.; Heisler, I.; Hebestreit, P.; Melziq, M.F.; Fuchs, H. The saponin mediated enhanced uptake of targeted saporin-based drugs is strongly dependent on the saponin structure. Exp. Biol. Med. , 2006, 231(4), 412-420.
[56]
Brouxhon, S.M. Kyrkanides, S.; Raja, V.; Silberfeld, A.; Teng, XF.; Trochesset, D. Ectodomain-specific E-cadherin antibody suppresses skin SCC growth and reduces tumor grade: A multi-targeted therapy modulating RTKs and the PTEN-p53-MDM2 Axis. Mol. Cancer Ther., 2014, 13(7), 791-802.
[57]
Zhang, C.; Jia, X.; Bao, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Li, P.; Wan, J. Bo.; Su, H.; Wang, Y.; Mei, Z.; He, C. Polyphyllin VII induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK pathways. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2016, 16, 58.
[58]
Qi, Y.; Chen, X.; Chan, C.; Li, D.; Yuan, C.; Yu, F.; Lin, M.C.; Yew, D.T.; Kung, H.F.; Lai, L. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis/analysis of diethylnitrosamine induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer, 2008, 122, 2682-2688.
[59]
Tan, Y.; Yin, P.; Tang, L.; Xing, W.; Huang, Q.; Cao, D.; Zhao, X.; Wang, W.; Lu, X.; Xu, Z.; Wang, H.; Xu, G. Metabolomics study of stepwise hepatocarcinogenesis from the model rats to patients: Potential biomarkers effective for small hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Mol. Cell. Proteomics, 2012, 11, 1-12.
[60]
Liu, J.; Man, S.; Li, J.; Zhang, Y.; Meng, X.; Gao, W. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016, 46, 103-109.
[61]
Man, S.; Gao, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, C. Yang.; Li, Y. Paridis saponins inhibiting carcinoma growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2010, 34(1), 43-50.
[62]
Ruamrungsri, N.; Siengdee, P.; Sringarm, K.; Chomdej, S.; Ongchai, S.; Nganvongpanit, K. In vitro cytotoxic screening of 31 crude extracts of Thai herbs on a chondrosarcoma cell line and primary chondrocytes and apoptotic effects of selected extracts. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 2016, 52(4), 434-444.
[63]
Wang, C.W.; Tai, C.J.; Choong, C.Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Lee, B.H.; Shi, Y.C.; Tai, C.J. Aqueous extract of Paris polyphylla (AEPP) inhibits ovarian cancer via suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha. Molecules, 2016, 21, 727.
[64]
Yang, C.; Cai, H.; Meng, X. Polyphyllin D induces apoptosis and differentiation in K562 human leukemia cells. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2016, 36, 17-22.
[65]
Li, F.R.; Jiao, P.; Yao, S.T.; Sang, H.; Qin, S.C.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.B.; Gao, L.L. Paris polyphylla Smith extract induces apoptosis and activates cancer suppressor gene connexin26 expression. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012, 13, 205-209.
[66]
Lu, C.; Li, C.J.; Wu, D.; Lu, J.M.; Tu, F.; Wang, L. Induction of apoptosis by Rhizoma paridis saponins in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011, 5(8), 1086-1091.
[67]
Lee, M.S.; Chan, J.Y.W.; Kong, S.K.; Yu, B.; Eng-Choon, V.O.; Nai-Ching, H.W.; Chung-Wai, T.M.; Fung, K.P. Effects of polyphyllin D, a steroidal saponin in Paris polyphylla, in growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells and in xenograft. Cancer Biol. Ther., 2005, 4(11), 1248-1254.
[68]
Cozzi, P. The discovery of a new potential anticancer drug: A case history. Farmaco, 2003, 58, 213-220.
[69]
Gao, L.L.; Li, F.R.; Jiao, P.; Yang, M.F.; Zhou, X.J.; Si, Y.H.; Jiang, W.J.; Zheng, T.T. Paris chinensis dioscin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. World J. Gastroenterol., 2011, 17(39), 4389-4395.
[70]
Ke, J.Y.; Zhang, W.; Gong, R.S.; Cen, W.J.; Huang, H.Q.; Li, Y.R.; Kong, W.D.; Jiang, J.W. A monomer purified from Paris polyphylla (PP-22) triggers S and G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 by activating the p38/cdc25/cdc2 and caspase 8/caspase 3 pathways. Tumour Biol., 2016, 37, 14863-14872.
[71]
Zhao, J.; Mou, Y.; Shan, T.; Li, Y.; Zhou, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, J. Antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii isolated from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Molecules, 2010, 15, 7961-7970.
[72]
Wang, Y.C.; Yi, T.Y. In vitro activity of Paris polyphylla Smith against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus B3 and its immune modulation. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2011, 39(6), 1219-1234.
[73]
Schrager, S. Abnormal uterine bleeding associated with hormonal contraception. Am. Fam. Physician, 2002, 65, 2073-2080.
[74]
Yua, Z.Y.; Guoa, L.; Wangb, B.; Kangc, L.P.; Zhaoa, Z.H.; Shan, Y.J.; Xiaod, H.; Chena, J.P.; Mac, B.P.; Wen, Y. Structural requirement of spirostanol glycosides for rat uterine contractility and mode of their synergism. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2010, 62, 521-529.
[75]
Li, Y. Studies on the introduction cultivation of genus Paris L. I. A premilinary report on sexual propogation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Acta Bot.Yunnanica , 1982, 4, 429-431.
[76]
Ling, L.Z.; Zhang, S.D. Zhao, Fan.; Yang, J.L.; Song, W.H.; Guan, S.M.; Li, X.S.; Huang, Z.J.; Cheng, L. Transcriptome-wide identification and prediction of miRNAs and their targets in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by high-throughput sequencing analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2017, 18, 219.
[77]
Jones-Rhoades, M.W.; Bartel, D.P.; Bartel, B. MicroRNAs and their regulatory roles in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 2006, 57, 19-53.
[78]
He, L.; Hannon, G.J. MicroRNAs: Small RNAs with a big role in gene regulation. Nat. Rev. Genet., 2004, 5, 522-531.
[79]
Jeong, D.H.; Park, S.; Zhai, J.; Gurazada, S.G.; de Paoli, E.; Meyers, B.C.; Green, P.J. Massive analysis of rice small RNAs: Mechanistic implications of regulated microRNAs and variants for differential target RNA cleavage. Plant Cell, 2011, 23, 4185-4207.
[80]
Ruhsam, M.; Rai, H.S.; Mathews, S.; Ross, T.G.; Graham, S.W.; Raubeson, L.A. Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria? Mol. Ecol. Resour., 2015, 15, 1067-1078.
[81]
Yang, J.B.; Tang, M.; Li, H.T.; Zhang, Z.R.; Li, D.Z. Complete chloroplast genome of the genus Cymbidium: Lights into the species identification, phylogenetic implications and population genetic analyses. BMC Evol. Biol., 2013, 13, 1.
[82]
Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Yang, Z.; Yang, C.; Yang, J.; Ji, Y. Analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequences improves phylogenetic resolution in Paris (Melanthiaceae). Front. Plant Sci., 2016, 7, 1797.
[83]
Do, H.D.K.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.H. A trnI_CAU triplication event in the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata M. Bieb. (Melanthiaceae, Liliales). Genome Biol. Evol., 2014, 6, 1699-1706.
[84]
Paul, A. Gajurel, P.R.; Das, A.K. Threats and conservation of Paris polyphylla an endangered, highly exploited medicinal plant in the Indian Himalayan Region. Biodiversitas , 2016, 16(2), 295-302.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 10
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [3 - 14]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2210315508666180518081208
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 15
HTML: 2