Background: Regenerative medicine deals with developing strategies to repair
or substitute organ or tissue functionality; it involves any combination of specific cell
types, engineered polymeric biomaterials with biochemical inducers to promote cell
adhesion, migration, growth, and differentiation to restore physiological tissue function,
and to stimulate regeneration of damaged and previously irreparable organs. Nanotechnology-
based approaches have been investigated towards for the development of innovative
multifunctional biodegradable biomaterials for tissue engineering, that can serve as
scaffolds for cells, but also allow monitoring the tissue regeneration process, controlling
the delivery of therapeutic agents, and/or the occurrence of biological reactions responsible
for organogenesis. Physical, chemical, and biological control of cell micro- and nanoenvironment
are of key importance for the ability to direct and manipulate the cell behaviour. This has led to
the development of new techniques enabling the fabrication of micro- and nanostructured biodegradable constructs
suitable for regenerative medicine applications.
Objective: This contribution gives an extensive overview of nanostructured polymeric biomaterial preparation,
characterization and stem cell interaction. The review starts with an introduction on regenerative medicine,
stem cells, and polymeric biomaterials, then the different techniques employed for the development of the
scaffolds will be described, analyzing solvent-based, gas-based and additive manufacturing techniques, highlighting
their principles, technological solutions and processes.
Conclusion: The synthesis of nanostructured biopolymeric nanoparticle bearing specific stabilizing agents can
open new challenges in the development of personalized health care products. A deep knowledge has to be acquired
on the chemical behaviour of the nanomaterials and on the interactions they establish with the bioenvironments.
Finally, recent advances and emerging designs and applications will be discussed.